Pyr may refer to:
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group. Pyruvate, the conjugate base, CH3COCOO−, is a key intermediate in several metabolic pathways throughout the cell.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N. It is structurally related to benzene, with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a highly flammable, weakly alkaline, water-soluble liquid with a distinctive, unpleasant fish-like smell. Pyridine is colorless, but older or impure samples can appear yellow. The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and vitamins. Historically, pyridine was produced from coal tar. Today it is synthesized on the scale of about 20,000 tonnes per year worldwide.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning. It is used by mouth or by injection.
In probability and statistics, density estimation is the construction of an estimate, based on observed data, of an unobservable underlying probability density function. The unobservable density function is thought of as the density according to which a large population is distributed; the data are usually thought of as a random sample from that population.
Encantadia is a 2005 Philippine television drama fantasy series broadcast by GMA Network. The series is the first installment of the Encantadia franchise. Directed by Mark A. Reyes, it stars Sunshine Dizon, Iza Calzado, Karylle, Diana Zubiri, Dingdong Dantes and Jennylyn Mercado. It premiered on May 10, 2005 on the network's Telebabad line up. The series concluded on December 9, 2005 with a total of 160 episodes. It was replaced by Etheria in its timeslot.
Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and contains 90 to 97 aminoacids. It is a cleavage product of preprooxyphysin. It is a neurohypophysial hormone that is transported in vesicles with oxytocin, the other cleavage product, along axons, from magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Although it is stored in neurosecretory granules with oxytocin and released with oxytocin, its biological action is unclear.
Sang'gre Danaya is a character and one of the protagonists of the Encantadia series, written by Suzette Doctolero. The Encantadia franchise, consisting of four series Encantadia (2005), Etheria (2005–06), Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas (2006), and Encantadia (2016), is primarily focused on Danaya's journey to save the realm against the invaders. Danaya is portrayed by actress Diana Zubiri on the first 3 series, while Sanya Lopez portrayed her in the 2016 series of the same name.
Pirena/Sang'gre Pirena is a character and the antihero of the Encantadia series, written by Suzette Doctolero. The character first appeared in Mulawin in 2004. The Encantadia franchise, consisting of four series Encantadia (2005), Etheria (2005–06), Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas (2006), and Encantadia (2016), is primarily focused on Pirena's quest to get the throne of the Lireo from her sister Amihan. Pirena is portrayed by actress Sunshine Dizon on the first 3 series, and in the spin-off movie Mulawin: The Movie, while Glaiza de Castro portrayed the character in the 2016 series of the same name.
Alena is a character and one of the protagonists of the Encantadia series, written by Suzette Doctolero. The Encantadia franchise, consisting of four series Encantadia (2005), Etheria (2005–06), Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas (2006), and Encantadia (2016), is primarily focused on Alena's journey towards finding a true love and building a family. Alena is portrayed by actress Karylle on the first 3 series, and in the spin-off movie Mulawin: The Movie, while Gabbi Garcia portrayed the character in the 2016 series of the same name.
Glu Mobile Inc. is an American developer and publisher of mobile games for smartphone and tablet devices. Founded in San Francisco, California, in 2001 as Sorrent, Glu offers products to multiple platforms including iOS, Android, Amazon, Windows Phone and Google Chrome.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process. They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells. Glutamate is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation.
Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes. It is also called 2-oxo-acid carboxylase, alpha-ketoacid carboxylase, and pyruvic decarboxylase. In anaerobic conditions, this enzyme is part of the fermentation process that occurs in yeast, especially of the genus Saccharomyces, to produce ethanol by fermentation. It is also present in some species of fish where it permits the fish to perform ethanol fermentation when oxygen is scarce. Pyruvate decarboxylase starts this process by converting pyruvate into acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Pyruvate decarboxylase depends on cofactors thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and magnesium. This enzyme should not be mistaken for the unrelated enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase, an oxidoreductase, that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA.
Enchanta is a constructed language spoken by the denizens of Encantadia, known as Encantado(s)/Encantada(s) or Diwata (fairies). It was initially created by Suzette Doctolero for the Philippine fantasy television drama saga Encantadia, which aired on GMA Network in 2005, and was later used in the show's sequels, Etheria: Ang Ikalimang Kaharian ng Encantadia and Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas. The source material of the language appears to have been derived from Philippine languages and Romance languages. It has its own script, Enchan, which appears to be based on Baybayin. Three songs in the language are written by Doctolero, namely "Asshenti ", "Hade!! ", and "Ivo ", which are all sung by Bayang Barrios for the sequel Etheria in 2006.
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. They mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission throughout the central nervous system and are key players in synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory. iGluRs have been divided into four subtypes on the basis of their ligand binding properties (pharmacology) and sequence similarity: AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors and delta receptors.
Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39, is a naturally occurring, endogenous neuropeptide with a docosapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Arg-Pro-Val-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Gly-Ala-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Ala-Glu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-Glu-Phe. CLIP is generated as a proteolyic cleavage product of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn is a cleavage product of proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Its physiological role has been investigated in various tissues, specifically in the central nervous system.
Neurophysin II is a carrier protein with a size of 19,687.3 Da and is made up of a dimer of two virtually identical chains of amino acids. Neurophysin II is a cleavage product of the prepro-vasopressin. It is a neurohypophysial hormone that is transported in vesicles with vasopressin, the other cleavage product, along axons, from magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Although it is stored in neurosecretory granules with vasopressin and released with vasopressin into the bloodstream, its biological action is unclear. Neurophysin II is also known as a stimulator of prolactin secretion.
5-MeO-pyr-T (5-methoxy-N,N-tetramethylenetryptamine) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. It is the 5-methoxy analog of pyr-T. 5-MeO-pyr-T was first synthesized by Hunt & Brimblecombe, who credited S. Mitzal for characterization of chemical properties. Later human tests were reported by Alexander Shulgin, in his book TiHKAL. An oral dosage of 0.5 to 2 mg, and an inhaled dosage of 2–3 mg are reported. 5-MeO-pyr-T causes varying reactions, such as amnesia, tinnitus, vomiting, and a 5-MeO-DMT-like rushing sensation. At the highest dosage reported in TiHKAL, the subject describes awakening from an apparent fugue state during which they were wandering the streets, with complete amnesia upon awakening.
The class C G-protein-coupled receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that include the metabotropic glutamate receptors and several additional receptors.
CPCCOEt is a drug used in scientific research, which acts as a non-competitive antagonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR1, with high selectivity although only moderate binding affinity. It is used mainly in basic research into the function of the mGluR1 receptor, including the study of behavioural effects in animals including effects on memory and addiction.
Encantadia is a Philippine television drama fantasy series broadcast by GMA Network. The series is based from the 2005 television series of the same name, it served as a reboot and the fourth television series in the Encantadia franchise. Directed by Mark A. Reyes, it stars Kylie Padilla, Gabbi Garcia, Sanya Lopez and Glaiza de Castro. It premiered on July 18, 2016 replacing Poor Señorita on the network's Telebabad line up and worldwide on GMA Pinoy TV. The series concluded on May 19, 2017 with a total of 218 episodes. It was replaced by Mulawin vs. Ravena in its timeslot.
Trofinetide (NNZ-2566) is a drug developed by Neuren Pharmaceuticals that acts as an analogue of the neuropeptide (1-3) IGF-1, which is a simple tripeptide with sequence Gly-Pro-Glu formed by enzymatic cleavage of the growth factor IGF-1 within the brain. Trofinetide has anti-inflammatory properties and was originally developed as a potential treatment for stroke, but has subsequently been developed for other applications and is now in Phase II clinical trials against Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome.
Encantadia is a Filipino fantasy franchise produced and published by GMA Network. It consists of four television series that have run from 2005 to present and a single film. The first was shown in 2005 carrying the title alone and ended in the same year with total of 160 episodes. The second series title Etheria premiered in the same year and ended in 2006 with 50 episodes. Due to its significant success, the third series title Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas premiered in 2006 consisting of 48 episodes. In 2016, 11 years after the original run, a reboot of the series premiered on the same network featuring new casts. In 2005, Encantadia had a crossover film with Mulawin entitled Mulawin: The Movie, which was produced by GMA Films as an entry to the 2005 Metro Manila Film Festival
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