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Robert T. Crowley (born March 2, 1948) is a pioneer in the development and practice of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), an early component of electronic commerce.
Crowley participated in the development of the early forms of EDI, working with Edward A. Guilbert, the creator of the technology, from the 1977 onwards, and assisted in the development of UN/EDIFACT, the international EDI standard developed through the United Nations. Active in many EDI projects around the world, he served as Chair of ANSI ASC X12, the US national standards body for EDI, from 1993 to 1995.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
He is the founder of the EDI standards committee for the ocean transport industry (OCEAN), as well as the US Customs Electronic Systems Advisory Committee (CESAC), advising the US Customs Service (USCS) on matters of electronic commerce. Robert was also a founding member of TOPAS (Terminal Operator and Port Authority Subcommittee) that initiated EDI use between ship lines and terminal operators/ports.
Robert also served as Chair of the X12 Security Task Group for a number of years, and was one of the authors of the X12 technical report on the use of Extensible Markup Language XML for conducting EDI. He is now vice chair of ISO Technical Committee 154 US Technical Advisory Group (ISO TC154 US TAG), and Editor of document ISO8601 Representation of Dates and Times.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML.
Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the concept of businesses electronically communicating information that was traditionally communicated on paper, such as purchase orders and invoices. Technical standards for EDI exist to facilitate parties transacting such instruments without having to make special arrangements.
The Accredited Standards Committee X12 is a standards organization. Chartered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979, it develops and maintains the X12 Electronic data interchange (EDI) and Context Inspired Component Architecture (CICA) standards along with XML schemas which drive business processes globally. The membership of ASC X12 includes technologists and business process experts, encompassing health care, insurance, transportation, finance, government, supply chain and other industries.
UN/CEFACT is the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business. It was established as an intergovernmental body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in 1996 and evolved from UNECE's long tradition of work in trade facilitation which began in 1957
X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as email.
United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN/EDIFACT) is the international EDI standard developed under the United Nations.
The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS),, is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization composed of Information technology developers. It was formerly known as the X3 and NCITS.
The Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA) was the organization that supported various other organizations, for the most part, responsible for the development of cross-industry electronic business interchange standards.
UN/CEFACT TBG5 is the entity responsible for financial services under the United Nations Centre for Trade facilitation and Electronic Business, (UN/CEFACT) under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
ISO 2014 is an international standard that was issued in April 1976, and superseded by ISO 8601 in June 1988. ISO 2014 was the standard that originally introduced the all-numeric date notation [YYYY]-[MM]-[DD] with the digits in order starting with the most significant digit first. It was technically identical to ISO Recommendation R 2014 from 1971.
ISO 2015 is a standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), superseded by ISO standard ISO 8601. The standard ISO week numbering system was introduced in ISO 2015. ISO 2015 was issued as an international standard in 1976, technically identical to ISO Recommendation R 2015, from 1971.
ISO 2711 is an ISO standard describing formats for ordinal dates. It was issued in 1973, and was superseded by ISO 8601 in June 1988.
ISO 3307 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The standard was issued in 1975, then was superseded by ISO 8601 in 1988.
The Accredited Standards Committee X9 is an ANSI accredited standards developing organization, responsible for developing voluntary open consensus standards for the financial services industry in the U.S.
The Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC) is a privately controlled US code used to identify road transport companies. It is typically two to four letters long. The National Motor Freight Traffic Association developed the SCAC code in the 1960s to help road transport companies computerize data and records.
WEDI, pronounced "wee dee", is a not-for-profit user group in the United States for users of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in public and private healthcare. The organization is sometimes referred to by other names that include some or all of the words: Workgroup for Electronic Data Interchange.
David R.R. Webber is an Information technologist specializing in applications of XML, ebXML and EDI to standards-based information exchanges. He is a senior member of the ACM since 2007. David Webber is one of the originators of the ebXML initiative for global electronic business via the internet. He is holder of two U.S. Patents for electronic information exchange transformation and those patents are now cited widely by 37 other patents. David Webber has implemented several unique groundbreaking computer solutions in his career including the world's first airport gate scheduling system , the SeeMail email client for MCIMail written in Prolog, the patented GoXML system for XMLGlobal, the ShroudIt obfuscation system for LNK Corp, and the VisualScript tool for Smartdraw Inc.
The Electronic Commerce Code Management Association (ECCMA) is an international not for profit membership association founded in 1999 with mission to research, develop and promote better quality data for use in electronic commerce.
Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language, commonly known as e-business XML, or ebXML as it is typically referred to, is a family of XML based standards sponsored by OASIS and UN/CEFACT whose mission is to provide an open, XML-based infrastructure that enables the global use of electronic business information in an interoperable, secure, and consistent manner by all trading partners.
Colin Robbins is a network protocol and software engineer credited for research work in distributed directory systems and a co-inventor of LDAP. Educated at Alleyn's School, he holds a BSc, Computer Science & Electronic Engineering, with first class honours, from University College London.
Kollam Port is one of the historic ports situated 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) away from Downtown Kollam. It is the second largest port in Kerala by volume of cargo handled and facilities. Located on the south-west coast of India, under the name of Quilon Port it became one of the country's most important trade hubs from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. Kollam was one the five Indian ports visited by Ibn Battuta.
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