R. T. Crowley

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Robert T. Crowley (born March 2, 1948) is a pioneer in the development and practice of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), an early component of electronic commerce.

Crowley participated in the development of the early forms of EDI, working with Edward A. Guilbert, the creator of the technology, from the 1977 onwards, and assisted in the development of UN/EDIFACT, the international EDI standard developed through the United Nations. Active in many EDI projects around the world, he served as Chair of ANSI ASC X12, the US national standards body for EDI, from 1993 to 1995.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

He is the founder of the EDI standards committee for the ocean transport industry (OCEAN), as well as the US Customs Electronic Systems Advisory Committee (CESAC), advising the US Customs Service (USCS) on matters of electronic commerce. Robert was also a founding member of TOPAS (Terminal Operator and Port Authority Subcommittee) that initiated EDI use between ship lines and terminal operators/ports.

Robert also served as Chair of the X12 Security Task Group for a number of years, and was one of the authors of the X12 technical report on the use of Extensible Markup Language XML for conducting EDI. He is now vice chair of ISO Technical Committee 154 US Technical Advisory Group (ISO TC154 US TAG), and Editor of document ISO8601 Representation of Dates and Times.

XML Markup language developed by the W3C for encoding of data

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML.

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