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The SNK Union of Independents (Czech official title: SNK sdružení nezávislých), or SNK (from the earlier title Sdružení nezávislých kandidátů - Association of Independent Candidates), was a small (rather conservative and liberal) political party (registered as a movement - hnutí by the Czech legislative) in Czech Republic, led since May 2007 by Helmut Dohnálek.
Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.
A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.
The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.
It was founded in 2000 in order to help various non-party affiliated town mayors to take part in regional assembly elections. Later it won two seats in the Senate elections in 2002.
The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The seat of the Senate is Wallenstein Palace in Prague.
In the 2004 European Parliament Election it stood on a joint ticket with the European Democrats which gained 11% of the vote and elected three MEPs, two of whom are members of the SNK.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP), also called a Eurodeputy is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
In February 2006 the non-parliamentary parties SNK and "European Democrats (ED)" merged. The unified party, led by former Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec, is called "SNK European Democrats (SNK ED)". The pro-European and liberal-conservative SNK-ED is represented by three deputies in the European Parliament.
The SNK European Democrats is a political party in the Czech Republic, led by Zdeňka Marková. The first regular chairperson of this party was Jana Hybášková. The party was created in January 2006 by the merger of two Czech political parties – SNK Union of Independents, led by the former Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec, and the European Democrats, led by Jan Kasl, the former Mayor of the City of Prague.
The Australian Democrats is a centrist political party in Australia. Founded in 1977 from a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement, both of which were descended from Liberal Party splinter group, it was Australia's largest minor party from its formation in 1977 through to 2004 and frequently held the balance of power in the Senate during that time.
The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the Government of the Czech Republic which reports to the lower house of Parliament. The Legislature is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies consisting of 200 members and the Senate (Senát) consisting of 81 members. Both houses together make up the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Democratic Party, abbreviated to PD, was a liberal and social-liberal minor political party in Poland. At the time of its dissolution, it had no members of the Sejm, Senate, or European Parliament.
Liberal Democracy of Slovenia is a social-liberal political party in Slovenia. Between 1992 and 2004 it was the largest party in the country. In the 2011 Slovenian parliamentary election, it failed to win entry to the Slovenian National Assembly. The party was a member of the Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe.
The Czech Social Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. It holds 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies following the 2017 legislative election, losing 35 seats. The party has been led by Jan Hamáček since 2018. It has been a junior coalition party within a minority cabinet since June 2018, and was a senior coalition party from 1998 to 2006 and from 2013 to 2017.
The Civic Democratic Alliance was a conservative-liberal political party in the Czech Republic, active between 1989 and 2007. The ODA was part of government coalitions until 1997 and participated in transformation of the Czech economy. The party was supported by president Václav Havel who voted for it in 1992 and 1996 election.
The Civic Democratic Party is a liberal-conservative political party in the Czech Republic. It holds 25 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and is the second strongest party following the 2017 election.
The Freedom Union–Democratic Union was a small, pro-european liberal party in the Czech Republic from 1998 to 2011.
The Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats is a centre-right political party in Lithuania. It has 18,000 members and 30 of 141 seats in the Seimas.
Jan Zahradil MEP is a Czech politician for the Civic Democratic Party (ODS). He has been a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) since the Czech Republic entered the European Union in 2004. Zahradil also served as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1998 to 2004.
Josef Zieleniec is a Czech politician and former Member of the European Parliament. From 2004, was a member of the SNK European Democrats (SNK-ED). In the European Parliament, he was a member of the European People's Party and served on the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs and Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs. Zieleniec is currently a lecturer at the Prague academic center of New York University.
The Green Party is a political party in the Czech Republic.
Josef Řihák is a Czech politician. Řihák is a member of Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic and the Assembly of the Central Bohemian Region. He is also a former member of Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic and a former mayor of Příbram.
In parliamentary politics, the term balance of power may describe a parliamentary situation in which a member or a number of members of chamber are in a position by their uncommitted vote to enable a party to attain and remain in minority government, and the term may also be applied to the members who hold that position. The members holding the balance of power may guarantee their support for a government by either joining it in a coalition government or by an assurance that they will vote against any motion of no confidence in the government or abstain in such a vote. In return for such a commitment, such persons may demand legislative or policy commitments from the party they are to support. A person or party may also hold a balance of power in a chamber without any commitment to government, in which case both the government and opposition groupings may on occasion need to negotiate that person's legislative support.
The Mayors and Independents, abbreviated to STAN, is a political party in the Czech Republic. The Mayors and Independents focus on localism and promoting powers for municipalities. The party grew out of four minor parties, including Independent Mayors for the Region, which allied itself with the liberal-conservative SNK European Democrats, and cooperated with the similarly liberal-conservative TOP 09 until 2016.
The Four-Coalition, also translated as the Coalition of Four or Quad-Coalition, abbreviated to 4K, was a liberal centre-right political alliance in the Czech Republic between 1998 and 2002.
Elections to regional councils in the Czech Republic were held in 13 regions on 12–13 October 2012. The Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) won in nine regions, though with a considerable loss of vote share. The Communist Party won in two regions and increased its vote share, finishing second overall. The election results were widely seen as a defeat for the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), which finished third overall and won only in the Plzeň Region. The regional grouping Mayors for Liberec Region won unexpectedly in Liberec Region.
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