Science Citation Index

Last updated
Science Citation Index
Producer Clarivate Analytics (Canada and Hong Kong)
DisciplinesScience, medicine, and technology
Print edition
ISSN 0036-827X

The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and created by Eugene Garfield. It was officially launched in 1964. It is now owned by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters). [1] [2] [3] [4] The larger version (Science Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 8,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of science and technology, because of a rigorous selection process. [5] [6] [7]


The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the Web of Science [8] [9] and SciSearch. [10] (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals). This database allows a researcher to identify which later articles have cited any particular earlier article, or have cited the articles of any particular author, or have been cited most frequently. Thomson Reuters also markets several subsets of this database, termed "Specialty Citation Indexes", [11] such as the Neuroscience Citation Index [12] and the Chemistry Citation Index. [13]

Chemistry Citation Index

The Chemistry Citation Index was first introduced by Eugene Garfield, a chemist by training. His original "search examples were based on [his] experience as a chemist". [14] In 1992 an electronic and print form of the index was derived from a core of 330 chemistry journals, within which all areas were covered. Additional information was provided from articles selected from 4,000 other journals. All chemistry subdisciplines were covered: organic, inorganic, analytical, physical chemistry, polymer, computational, organometallic, materials chemistry, and electrochemistry. [14]

By 2002 the core journal coverage increased to 500 and related article coverage increased to 8,000 other journals. [15]

One 1980 study reported the overall citation indexing benefits for chemistry, examining the use of citations as a tool for the study of the sociology of chemistry and illustrating the use of citation data to "observe" chemistry subfields over time. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature. Legal citation indexes are found in the 18th century and were made popular by citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by CiteSeer in 1997. Other sources for such data include Google Scholar and Elsevier's Scopus.

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was an academic publishing service, founded by Eugene Garfield in Philadelphia in 1960. ISI offered scientometric and bibliographic database services. Its specialty was citation indexing and analysis, a field pioneered by Garfield.

The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index that reflects the yearly average number of citations that recent articles published in a given journal received. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field; journals with higher impact factors are often deemed to be more important than those with lower ones.

Scientometrics is the field of study which concerns itself with measuring and analysing scientific literature. Scientometrics is a sub-field of bibliometrics. Major research issues include the measurement of the impact of research papers and academic journals, the understanding of scientific citations, and the use of such measurements in policy and management contexts. In practice there is a significant overlap between scientometrics and other scientific fields such as information systems, information science, science of science policy, sociology of science, and metascience. Critics have argued that over-reliance on scientometrics has created a system of perverse incentives, producing a publish or perish environment that leads to low quality research.

Citation analysis is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in documents. It uses the directed graph of citations — links from one document to another document — to reveal properties of the documents. A typical aim would be to identify the most important documents in a collection. A classic example is that of the citations between academic articles and books. For another example, judges of law support their judgements by referring back to judgements made in earlier cases. An additional example is provided by patents which contain prior art, citation of earlier patents relevant to the current claim.

Eugene Garfield American scientist

Eugene Eli Garfield was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. He helped to create Current Contents, Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports, and Index Chemicus, among others, and founded the magazine The Scientist.

The Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), also known as Arts & Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural science journals. Part of this database is derived from Current Contents records. Furthermore, the print counterpart is Current Contents.

Citation impact quantifies the citation usage of scholarly works. It is a result of citation analysis or bibliometrics. Among the measures that have emerged from citation analysis are the citation counts for an individual article, an author, and an academic journal.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905. Since 1925, it is published by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It covers research in areas of biochemistry and molecular biology. The editor-in-chief is Lila Gierasch. All its articles are available free after one year of publication. In press articles are available free on its website immediately after acceptance.

Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics. It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collections. It provides information about academic journals in the natural sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. The JCR was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index. Currently, the JCR, as a distinct service, is based on citations compiled from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index.

<i>Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry</i> journal

Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the application of NMR, ESR, and NQR spectrometry in all branches of chemistry. The journal was established in 1969 and is published by John Wiley & Sons. The editors-in-chief are Roberto R. Gil and Gary E. Martin.

The Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1965. It is published in fourteen issues per year by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the International Isotope Society and covers all aspects of research and development leading to and resulting in labelled compound preparation. The current editor-in-chief is K. M. W. Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline).

Phytochemical Analysis is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1991 and published by John Wiley & Sons. It covers research on the utilization of analytical methodology in Plant Chemistry. The current Editor-in-Chief is Prof Satyajit Sarker and Managing Editor is Dr Lutfun Nahar.

<i>Journal of Raman Spectroscopy</i> journal

The Journal of Raman Spectroscopy is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Raman spectroscopy, including Higher Order Processes, and Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering. It was established in 1973 and is published by John Wiley & Sons. The editor-in-chief is Laurence A. Nafie.

Web of Science Online subscription index of citations

Web of Science is a website which provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic disciplines. It was originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and is currently maintained by Clarivate Analytics

Scientometrics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of scientometrics. It publishes original studies, short communications, review papers, letters to the editor, and book reviews. It is published by Akadémiai Kiadó and Springer Science+Business Media and was established in 1978. Its founder and first editor-in-chief was Tibor Braun.

BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

The Book Citation Index is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service maintained by Clarivate Analytics and is part of the Web of Science Core Collection. It was first launched in 2011 and indexes over 60,000 editorially selected books, starting from 2005. Books in the index are electronic and print scholarly texts that contain articles based on original research and/or reviews of such literature.

Clarivate Analytics American analytics company

Clarivate Analytics is a Philadelphia and London-based company formed in 2016 following the acquisition of Thomson Reuters' Intellectual Property and Science Business by Onex Corporation and Baring Private Equity Asia. In May 13, 2019, Clarivate Analytics merged with Churchill Capital.


  1. Garfield, E. (1955). "Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas". Science . 122 (3159): 108–11. Bibcode:1955Sci...122..108G. doi:10.1126/science.122.3159.108. PMID   14385826.
  2. Garfield, Eugene (2011). "The evolution of the Science Citation Index" (PDF). International Microbiology . 10 (1): 65–69. doi:10.2436/20.1501.01.10.
  3. Garfield, Eugene (1963). "Science Citation Index" (PDF). Science Citation Index 1961. 1: v–xvi. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  4. "History of Citation Indexing". Clarivate Analytics. November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
  5. "Science Citation Index Expanded" . Retrieved 2017-01-17.
  6. Ma, Jiupeng; Fu, Hui-Zhen; Ho, Yuh-Shan (December 2012). "The Top-cited Wetland Articles in Science Citation Index Expanded: characteristics and hotspots". Environmental Earth Sciences . 70 (3): 1039. Bibcode:2009EES....56.1247D. doi:10.1007/s12665-012-2193-y.
  7. Ho, Yuh-Shan (2012). "The top-cited research works in the Science Citation Index Expanded" (PDF). Scientometrics . 94 (3): 1297. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0837-z.
  8. "Available databases A to Z". Thomson Reuters. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  9. Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. Thomson Reuters, 2013.
  11. "Specialty Citation Indexes". Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  12. "Journal Search - Science" . Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  13. "Journal Search - Science - Thomson Reuters" . Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  14. 1 2 Garfield, Eugene (1992). "New Chemistry Citation Index On CD-ROM Comes With Abstracts, Related Records, and Key-Words-Plus" (PDF). Current Contents . 3: 5–9.
  15. Chemistry Citation Index. Institute of Process Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2003.
  16. Dewitt, T. W.; Nicholson, R. S.; Wilson, M. K. (1980). "Science citation index and chemistry". Scientometrics . 2 (4): 265. doi:10.1007/BF02016348.

Further reading