Sorbonne

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Chapel of Sainte Ursule. P1300734 Paris V place de la Sorbonne rwk.jpg
Chapel of Sainte Ursule.
Inscription over an entrance to the Sorbonne. Lasorbonne photo2.jpg
Inscription over an entrance to the Sorbonne.
The front of the Sorbonne Building. Front of the Sorbonne.jpg
The front of the Sorbonne Building.
Place de la Sorbonne. Paris 75005 Place de la Sorbonne Sainte-Ursule 20041101.jpg
Place de la Sorbonne.
Exterior of Sorbonne edifice. Sorbonne exterior.jpg
Exterior of Sorbonne edifice.

The Sorbonne ( UK: /sɔːrˈbɒn/ , also US: /sɔːrˈbɔːn/ , [1] [2] French:  [sɔʁbɔn] ) is a building in the Latin Quarter of Paris which from 1253 on housed the College of Sorbonne, part of one of the first universities in the world, later renamed University of Paris and commonly known as "the Sorbonne". Today, it continues to house the successor universities of the University of Paris, such as Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University and University of Paris, as well as the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris. Sorbonne Université is also now the university resulting from the merger on January 1, 2018 of Paris 6 UPMC and Paris 4 Sorbonne. [3]

Contents

Collège de Sorbonne

The name is derived from the Collège de Sorbonne, founded in 1257 by the eponymous Robert de Sorbon as one of the first significant colleges of the medieval University of Paris. [4] [5] The library was among the first to arrange items alphabetically according to title. [6] The university predates the college by about a century, and minor colleges had been founded already during the late 12th century. During the 16th century, the Sorbonne became involved with the intellectual struggle between Catholics and Protestants. The University served as a major stronghold of Catholic conservative attitudes and, as such, conducted a struggle against King Francis I's policy of relative tolerance towards the French Protestants, except for a brief period during 1533 when the University was placed under Protestant control.

The Collège de Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution, reopened by Napoleon in 1808 and finally closed in 1882. This was only one of the many colleges of the University of Paris that existed until the French revolution. Hastings Rashdall, in The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (1895), which is still a standard reference on the topic, lists some 70 colleges of the university from the Middle Ages alone; some of these were short-lived and disappeared already before the end of the medieval period, but others were founded during the early modern period, like the Collège des Quatre-Nations.

Paris Faculty of Theology

With time, the college came to be the main French institution for theological studies and "Sorbonne" was frequently used as a synonym for the Paris Faculty of Theology despite being only one of many colleges of the university.

May 1968

After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration closed that university on May 2, 1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre.

On May 6, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF) — still the largest student union in France today — and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne. More than 20,000 students, teachers and other supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to make barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time. The police then responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds of students were arrested.

May 10 marked the "Night of Barricades", where students used cars, wood, and cobblestones to barricade the streets of the Latin Quarter. Brutal street fighting ensued between students and riot police, most notably on Rue Gay-Lussac. Early the next morning, as the fighting disbanded, Daniel Cohn-Bendit sent out a radio broadcast calling for a general strike. On Monday, 13 May, more than one million workers went on strike and the students declared that the Sorbonne was "open to the public". [7] Negotiations ended, and students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover police still occupying the schools.

When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "People's University". During the weeks that followed, approximately 401 popular action committees were established in Paris and elsewhere to document grievances against the government and French society, including the Occupation Committee of the Sorbonne.

Current state of affairs

In 1970, the University of Paris was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne. Three of those universities maintain facilities in the historical building of the Sorbonne, and thus have the word in their name: Sorbonne University, Panthéon-Sorbonne University, and Sorbonne Nouvelle University. Paris Descartes University uses also the Sorbonne building. The building also houses the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études, the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne and the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne.

The Sorbonne Chapel was classified as a French historic monument in 1887. The amphitheatre ( Le Grand Amphithéâtre ) and the entire building complex (façades and roofs) became monuments in 1975. [8]

Sorbonne name dispute

Despite being a highly valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name.

Following the May 1968 events, French higher education was reorganized in the Faure law of November 12, 1968. [9] [10] [11] Some of the 13 autonomous universities created after the breakup of the University of Paris maintained operations in the Sorbonne building and decided to keep the word Sorbonne in their names: The University of Paris 1 (Panthéon-Sorbonne), the University of Paris 3 (Sorbonne-Nouvelle) and the University of Paris 4 (Paris-Sorbonne). Two other universities maintained operations in the building but opted to abandon the name: the University of Paris 5 (Paris Descartes) and the University of Paris 7 (Paris Diderot). [12]

Two additional higher education institutions also remained active in the historical Sorbonne building: the Ecole des chartes and the Ecole pratique de hautes études. [12] Furthermore, the University of Paris 2 (Panthéon-Assas), while not based in the Sorbonne building, does operate from the Panthéon site across the Cujas street. [13]

The common heritage and estate of the University of Paris (including the Sorbonne building) was not divided and instead placed under the authority of a common administration: the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, whose headquarters are also located in the Sorbonne building. [9] [14]

The building as a whole is then a common asset of the 13 successor universities of the University of Paris, and particularly the monumental sections are not attributed to any single university (but shared by all of them): the Sorbonne Chapel, the Cour d'honneur, the Péristyle and the Grand amphithéâtre. [12] [15]

Some of the dependencies are administered by one of the successor universities (while remaining a common asset). The library of the Sorbonne (Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de la Sorbonne) is a common library of the universities Panthéon-Sorbonne, Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Sorbonne-Université, Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot, administered by Panthéon-Sorbonne. [16]

The classrooms, libraries and administrative offices are attributed to the Universities maintaining operations in the building: Panthéon-Sorbonne, Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Sorbonne-Université (which also has its headquarters), Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot. All of them also operate in other campuses established across Paris.

The name and brand Sorbonne

Despite being a highly valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name.

However, almost 30 years went by without any of them registering their names as a trademark. The first one to do it was the University of Paris 4 Paris-Sorbonne, who trademarked the name Université de Paris-Sorbonne in 1996, followed by the registration of the updated logos over the next decade. [17] It was followed by Sorbonne-Nouvelle and Panthéon-Sorbonne [17] in 1999. [18] In 2007 Paris 4 trademarked also the brand "La Sorbonne". In 2006 it had granted permission to the authorities of Abu Dhabi to use the brand Sorbonne in the entire Middle east region; the "Sorbonne Abu Dhabi" logo was trademarked in 2007, [17] blocking other Sorbonne universities from doing the same. [19] This last initiative triggered a crisis with the other Sorbonne universities, forcing the French authorities to intervene. [20]

The local governments of Paris and the Île de France region threatened to block the merger of Paris 2, Paris 4 and Paris 6, who had trademarked the brand "Université de la Sorbonne", [17] if they persisted in taking over the name Sorbonne for themselves at the expense of the other Sorbonne universities. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

Later the merging project advanced only between the Universities of Paris 4 and Paris 6 [26] but was forced to reconsider the name Sorbonne Université. The compromise in 2010 consisted of adding a "s" at the end of the name of the project (the future merged University would be named later), making it Sorbonne Universités. [9] [17] In 2018 the project effectively merged the former universities of Paris 4 and 6, taking the name "Sorbonne-Université" with or without the hyphen. [27] In line with the naming convention and with the former crisis of 2006 in the background, the number in the name disappears and the accompanying name becomes "Sorbonne Université", replacing "Paris-Sorbonne" and "Pierre et Marie Curie".

The new naming is then "Université Sorbonne Université" or "Université Sorbonne-Université" [27] though colloquially and in most communications, and in registered trademarks [17] is simply "Sorbonne Université". The first "University" in the name refers to the fact that it is a University – only public higher education institutions are allowed to use that term in France [28] – and the second "University" comes from the naming convention of adding a name after the City-number designation. Currently Sorbonne-Université is the only Sorbonne university not using a number in its name.

The University of Paris 2 (Panthéon-Assas) trademarked the brand "Université Sorbonne-Assas" in 2007 and "Sorbonne-Assas" in 2013. [17] It offers an international degree in its Sorbonne-Assas International Law School. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

College of Sorbonne former theological college of the University of Paris

The College of Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon (1201–1274), after whom it was named. With the rest of the Paris colleges, it was suppressed during the French Revolution. It was restored in 1808 but finally closed in 1882. In recent times it came to refer to the group of academic faculties of the University of Paris, as opposed to the professional faculties of law and medicine. It is also used to refer to the main building of the University of Paris in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, which houses several faculties created when the University was divided up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France from 1896 to 1968

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

Sorbonne University Public research university in Paris, France

Sorbonne University is a public research university in Paris, France, established in 2018 by the merger of Paris-Sorbonne University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, along with smaller institutions. The date 1257 on its logo refers to the founding of Collège de Sorbonne by Robert de Sorbon, part of the university's early legacy. With 32 Nobel Prize and Fields Medal winners, Sorbonne University has a long tradition of academic excellence.

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University of Paris II Panthéon-Assas public research university in Paris, France created in 1971

Paris II Panthéon-Assas University, also referred to as Assas ([asas]) or Paris II is a research university specialized in law and economics in Paris, France. It is renowned for excellence in law and often described as the top law school in France. It is considered as the direct inheritor of the Faculty of Law and Economics of Paris (1257–1970) since, following the division of the University of Paris in 1970, most of its law professors choose to perpetuate the faculty by creating and joining a university of law and economics offering the same programs within the same two buildings. It currently provides law courses for Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law.

University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne French university located place du Panthéon, in Paris

University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, also known as Paris 1 or Pantheon-Sorbonne University, is a multidisciplinary public research university in Paris, France.

Paris Descartes University Former french public research university existing from 1971 to 2019

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Paris-Sorbonne University Former french university existing from 1971 to 2018

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Pierre and Marie Curie University Former french university existing from 1971 to 2017

Pierre and Marie Curie University, titled as UPMC from 2007–2017 and also known as Paris 6, was a public research university in Paris, France from 1971 to 2017. The university was located on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.

University of Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3 academic publisher

The New Sorbonne University is a public university in Paris, France.

Paris Universitas association under the French law of 1901

Paris Universitas was an alliance of six institutions of higher education in Paris, France, that existed from 2005 to 2010. Paris Universitas offered a wide range of disciplines, from medicine to the humanities, engineering, law, management and the social sciences. The institution expected to rank between 1 and 3 in Europe for number of publications, although rankings were not released due to the short lifespan of the institution. In 2006, Paris Universitas was ranked first among European universities and 4th in the world for the largest volume of English-language publications.

Paris Law Faculty Paris Law Faculty of the former University of Paris || for the period from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution, see Q20749392 || for the period 1806-1896, see Q20749406 || for the period 1886-1968, see Q20749407

The Paris Law Faculty was one of the four and eventually five faculties of the University of Paris, nicknamed "the Sorbonne", from around 1150–1200 until 1970. Its two main buildings were place du Panthéon and rue d’Assas.

The Sorbonne is a historic building in the Latin Quarter of Paris, France, which housed the former University of Paris.

Sorbonne University Association association of academic institutions in Paris, France

Sorbonne University Association is a group of 10 academic institutions associated with the Sorbonne University. After the fusion between Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University under the name "Sorbonne University" in 2018, the group Sorbonne Universités changed its name to Association Sorbonne Université.

Education in Paris Education in the capital of France

In the early 9th century, the emperor Charlemagne mandated all churches to give lessons in reading, writing and basic arithmetic to their parishes, and cathedrals to give a higher-education in the finer arts of language, physics, music, and theology; at that time, Paris was already one of France's major cathedral towns and beginning its rise to fame as a scholastic centre. By the early 13th century, the Île de la Cité Notre-Dame cathedral school had many famous teachers, and the controversial teachings of some of these led to the creation of a separate Left-Bank Sainte-Genevieve University that would become the centre of Paris's scholastic Latin Quarter best represented by the Sorbonne university.

Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne inter-university library in Paris, France

The Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne is an inter-university library in Paris, France. It is situated in the Sorbonne building. It is a medieval institution of the Sorbonne, which evolved over the centuries as part of the University of Paris. It is a common library of Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne-Nouvelle University, Sorbonne University, Paris Descartes University, and Paris Diderot University. It is administered by Panthéon-Sorbonne University as per a governing agreement signed among these universities in 2000.

A College of Law, sometimes called Law school or Law academy, is in France a selective school inside each French university or faculty of law for its best students which deliver a specific diploma of the university.

Bibliothèque universitaire des langues et civilisations

The Bibliothèque universitaire des langues et civilisations (BULAC) is a major academic library located in Paris Rive Gauche and which has been open to the public since its 2011 opening. The library has a scope that includes all languages and civilisations that are not those of the Western World. It provides more than one million documents written in all languages, formed from the former collections of more than 20 libraries.

The Sorbonne Grand Amphitheatre is a monumental amphitheatre located in the Sorbonne building in Paris latin quarter. It provides a space for official speeches and events, as well as official ceremonies, degrees and prize awardings by the Sorbonne universities and the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris.

The Tolbiac centre of University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, which hosts the undergraduate lectures in Law of this university, is regularly blocked by students in order to protest reforms of the government. Lectures are then cancelled, up to several months.

References

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Coordinates: 48°50′55″N2°20′36″E / 48.84861°N 2.34333°E / 48.84861; 2.34333