Suleiman II

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Suleiman II
سليمان ثانى
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Ottoman Caliph
Suleyman II.jpg
20th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Predecessor Mehmed IV
Successor Ahmed II
Born15 April 1642
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died22 or 23 June 1691(1691-06-23) (aged 49)
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Burial
ConsortsHatice Kadın [1]
Behzad Kadın [1]
İvaz Kadın [1]
Süğlün Kadın [1]
Şehsuvar Kadın [1]
Zeyneb Kadın [1]
Full name
Suleiman bin Ibrahim
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Ibrahim
Mother Aşub Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra Tughra of Suleiman II.JPG

Suleiman II (15 April 1642 – 22/23 June 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.

Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.

Sultan noble title with several historical meanings

Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Contents

Early life

Suleiman II was born on 15 April 1642 at Topkapı Palace in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ibrahim and Aşub Sultan, a Serb woman originally named Katarina. [2] [3] [4] Suleiman was only 3 months younger than his half-brother Mehmed IV, who was born on 2 January 1642. After the deposition and execution of his father in 1648, Suleiman's half-brother Mehmed came to the throne. In 1651, Suleiman was confined in kafes (cage), a kind of luxurious prison for princes of the blood within the Topkapı Palace (it was designed to ensure that none could organize a rebellion), and he stayed there for 36 years until he took the throne in 1687.

Topkapı Palace palace in Istanbul, Turkey; primary residence of the Ottoman sultans for approximately 400 years (1465–1856)

The Topkapı Palace, or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans.

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Byzantine Empire, and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330. The city was located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman sultan

Ibrahim was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Istanbul the son of Ahmed I by Valide Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Anastasia.

Reign

The Ottoman Army after suffering a devastating defeat during the Second Battle of Mohacs. Battle of Mohacs 1687.jpg
The Ottoman Army after suffering a devastating defeat during the Second Battle of Mohács.

Shortly before he assumed the throne, the Ottomans suffered a devastating defeat at the second Battle of Mohács in 1687. In 1688, Suleiman II urgently requested for assistance against the rapidly advancing Austrians, during the Ottoman–Habsburg War, but Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and his forces were too heavily engaged in the Deccan Wars against the Marathas to commit to any formal assistance to their desperate Ottoman allies. [5]

Battle of Mohács (1687) 1687 battle

The Second Battle of Mohács, also known as the Battle of Harsány Mountain, was fought on 12 August 1687 between the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa, and the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles of Lorraine. The result was a crushing defeat for the Ottomans.

Habsburg Monarchy former Central European empire (1526–1804)

The Habsburg Monarchy – also Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Great Turkish War Series of conflicts (1683–1699) between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League

The Great Turkish War or the War of the Holy League was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and Poland, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.

Suleiman II shrewdly appointed Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha as his Grand Vizier on 25 October 1689, leading to the reconquest of Belgrade in 1690. Even so, when Russia joined an alliance of European powers, the Ottomans lost the support of their Crimean allies, who were forced to defend themselves from Russian invasion. Under Köprülü's leadership, the Ottomans halted an Austrian advance into Serbia and crushed an uprising in Macedonia and Bulgaria until Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha was killed in the Battle of Slankamen by Austrian forces, two months after Suleiman II died at Edirne Palace in 1691.

Köprülüzade Fazıl Mustafa Pasha ("Köprülü Mustafa Pasha the Wise", also known as Gazi Fazıl Mustafa Köprülü served as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1689 to 1691, when the Empire was engaged in a war against the Holy League countries in the Great Turkish War. He was a member of the Köprülü family of Albanian origin. His father Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, his elder brother Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, as well as his two brothers-in-law were former grand viziers. His epithet Fazıl means "wise" in Ottoman Turkish.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is the largest metropolitan area in Europe proper and one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

Crimean Khanate former stat at the Crimean Peninsula until April 1783

The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde of Mongol origin. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1449, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage; Temür married one of Genghis Khan's granddaughters. The khanate was located in present-day Russia and Ukraine.

Croatia Republic in Central Europe

Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.

See also

Sources

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 M. Çağatay Uluçay, Padişahların Kadınları ve Kızları, Ötüken Publications, p. 113.
  2. "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism . Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  3. Günseli İnal; Semiramis Arşivi (2005). Semiramis: Sultan'ın gözünden şenlik. YKY. p. 27. ISBN   978-975-08-0928-6. Siileyman'in annesi Sirp Katrin yani Dilasiip Hatun
  4. Ali Kemal Meram (1977). Padişah anaları: resimli belgesel tarih romanı. Öz Yayınları. p. 325.
  5. Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ... - Naimur Rahman Farooqi - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 1989. Retrieved 29 April 2012.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Suleiman II at Wikimedia Commons


Suleiman II
Born: 15 April 1642 Died: 22 June 1691[aged 49]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mehmed IV
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Succeeded by
Ahmed II
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mehmed IV
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Succeeded by
Ahmed II

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