Thornton-Pickard was a well known British camera manufacturer established in 1888. The company was based in Altrincham, near Manchester, and was an early pioneer in the development of the camera industry.
Altrincham is an affluent town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, south of the River Mersey 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Manchester city centre, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Sale and 10 miles (16 km) east of Warrington. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 52,419.
The Thornton-Pickard company was founded by John Edward Thornton and Edgar Pickard in Manchester, in 1888. The company moved to a new factory at Broadheath, Altrincham in 1891. The innovative "Time & Instantaneous" shutter was designed and patented by Thornton in 1892. This shutter design was also licensed to a number of other camera makers. Some early cameras produced by the company included the "Ruby" and "Amber" models.
Broadheath is a suburb of Altrincham, Greater Manchester, England. Historically part of Cheshire, it had a population at the 2011 census of 12,538.
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a photosensitive digital sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene. A shutter can also be used to allow pulses of light to pass outwards, as seen in a movie projector or a signal lamp. A shutter of variable speed is used to control exposure time of the film. The shutter is constructed so that it automatically closes after a certain required time interval. The speed of the shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera, on which various timings are marked.
In 1897 the company became a limited company, followed shortly afterwards by the sudden death of Edgar Pickard, due to a perforated ulcer. Thornton now found himself in a company dominated by the Pickard family, who he disliked intensely, and shortly afterwards he left. In 1899 he formed a new business partnership with Charles Rothwell, a chemist who shared Thorntons interest in photography. The company was called the Thornton Film Company. In 1913 Thornton emigrated to the United States, and went on to patent a three-colour cine film that was manufactured under license by Eastman Kodak. Thornton eventually returned to England, and died some years later in 1940.
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by shares or by guarantee. The former may be further divided in public companies and private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast, anyone may buy shares in a public limited company.
Following the loss of its founders, Thornton-Pickard continued to manufacture cameras. The successful "Imperial Triple Extension" model was introduced in 1913, and continued in production until the 1930s. During the First World War, the company produced a number of cameras for military use, including the Mark III Hythe gun camera. In 1921 the company merged with several others to form Amalgamated Photographic Manufacturers. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s the company found it increasingly difficult to compete with cheaper imported cameras, and ceased trading in 1939.
Gun cameras are cameras used primarily in aircraft to help measure tactical effectiveness. These cameras are triggered by the firing of a weapon, hence the name.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be significantly different from the final image. When the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured.
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, and a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism.
Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitar, currently owned by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. In popular usage, the term is also used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar.
Victor Hasselblad AB is a Swedish manufacturer of medium-format cameras, photographic equipment and image scanners based in Gothenburg, Sweden. The company is best known for the classic medium-format cameras it has produced since World War II.
A press camera is a medium or large format view camera that was predominantly used by press photographers in the early to mid-20th century. It was largely replaced for press photography by 35mm film cameras in the 1960s, and subsequently, by digital cameras. The quintessential press camera was the Speed Graphic. Press cameras are still used as portable and rugged view cameras.
135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm (1.4 in), typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras. Its engineering standard for the film is controlled by ISO 1007.
Graflex was a manufacturer that gave its brand name to several models of camera.
Minolta Co., Ltd. was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, camera accessories, photocopiers, fax machines, and laser printers. Minolta was founded in Osaka, Japan, in 1928 as Nichi-Doku Shashinki Shōten. It is perhaps best known for making the first integrated autofocus 35mm SLR camera system. In 1931, the company adopted its current name, an acronym for "Mechanism, Instruments, Optics, and Lenses by Tashima". In 1933, the brand name first appeared on a camera, a copy of the Plaubel Makina simply called "Minolta".
Mamiya Digital Imaging Co., Ltd. is a Japanese company that manufactures high-end cameras and other related photographic and optical equipment. With headquarters in Tokyo, it has two manufacturing plants and a workforce of over 200 people. The company was founded in May 1940 by camera designer Seiichi Mamiya and financial backer Tsunejiro Sugawara.
Crossley Motors was a British motor vehicle manufacturer based in Manchester, England. They produced approximately 19,000 high-quality cars from 1904 until 1938, 5,500 buses from 1926 until 1958 and 21,000 goods and military vehicles from 1914 to 1945.
Bolex is a trade mark registered October 1924 for Charles Haccius and Jacques Bogopolsky. The actual company Bolex International S. A. of Yverdon is a Swiss follow manufacturer of motion picture cameras, the most notable products of which are in the 16 mm and Super 16 mm formats. A first company Bol was founded by Haccius and Bogopolsky in 1925 and Bolex is derived from Bogopolsky′s name. He had previously designed cameras for Alpa of Ballaigues. In 1923 he presented the Cinégraphe Bol at the Geneva fair, a reversible apparatus for taking, printing, and projecting pictures on 35-mm. film.
Bronica also Zenza Bronica was a Japanese manufacturer of classic medium-format roll film cameras and photographic equipment based in Tokyo, Japan. Their single-lens reflex (SLR) system-cameras competed with Pentax, Hasselblad, Mamiya and others in the medium-format camera market.
Sherman Mills Fairchild was an American businessman, investor and inventor. He founded over 70 companies, including Fairchild Aircraft, Fairchild Industries, and Fairchild Camera and Instrument. Fairchild made significant contributions to the aviation industry and was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1979. His Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation, Semiconductor Division company played a defining role in the development of Silicon Valley. He held over 30 patents for products ranging from the silicon semiconductor to the 8-mm home sound motion-picture camera. Fairchild is also responsible for inventing the first synchronized camera shutter and flash as well as developing new technologies for aerial cameras that were later used on the Apollo Missions.
The Mitchell Camera Corporation was founded in 1919 by Americans Henry Boeger and George Alfred Mitchell as the National Motion Picture Repair Co. Their first camera was designed and patented by John E. Leonard in 1917, and from 1920 on, was known as the Mitchell Standard Studio Camera. Features included a planetary gear-driven variable shutter and a unique rack-over design. George Mitchell perfected and upgraded Leonard's original design, and went on to produce the most beloved and most universally used motion picture cameras of the Golden Age of Hollywood under the name of The Mitchell Camera Company. The company was first headquarted on Sunset Blvd in Los Angeles, then building a new factory in West Hollywood and moving there in 1930, and finally moving operations to their final factory location in Glendale California in the 1940's.
Yashica was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, originally active from 1949 until 2005 when its then-owner, Kyocera, ceased production.
The Gaumont-British Picture Corporation was a company that produced and distributed films and operated a cinema chain in the United Kingdom.
The Oliver Typewriter Company was an American typewriter manufacturer headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The Oliver Typewriter was the first effective "visible print" typewriter, meaning text was visible to the typist as it was entered. Oliver typewriters were marketed heavily for home use, using local distributors and sales on credit. Oliver produced more than one million machines between 1895 and 1928 and licensed its designs to several international firms.
Auricon cameras were 16 mm film Single System sound-on-film motion picture cameras manufactured in the 1940s through the early 1980s. Auricon cameras are notable because they record sound directly onto an optical or magnetic track on the same film as the image is photographed on, thus eliminating the need for a separate audio recorder. The camera preceded ENG video cameras as the main AV tool of television news gathering due to its portability–and relatively quick production turn-around–where processed negative film image could be broadcast by electronically creating a positive image. Additionally, the Auricon found studio use as a 'kinescope' camera of live video off of a TV screen, but only on early pre-NTSC line-locked monochrome systems.
The Leica copies originate from the Leica camera that was launched by Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar in 1925, using the Leica 39mm screw mount of 25 threads per inch, and the standard 35mm film. The design was carried out by Oskar Barnack, beginning in 1913 by building a camera for 24×36 mm negatives that by now is called the Ur-Leica; but Ernst Leitz did not decide to manufacture it until 1924. Once started, the Leica production volume doubled each year; in 1929, some 16.000 cameras were produced. In 1930, an improved model with interchangeable lens was introduced, followed a year later by the fully developed Leica II with standardized film to lens flange distance, and in 1932 the basic Leica Standard; the Leica concept was established. This camera's features are the basis for defining a Leica copy.