Thouless

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David J. Thouless British physicist

David James Thouless is a British condensed-matter physicist. He is a winner of the 1990 Wolf Prize and laureate of the 2016 Nobel Prize for physics along with F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter. In 2016, Thouless was reported to be suffering from dementia.

Robert H. Thouless British parapsychologist

Robert Henry Thouless was a British psychologist and parapsychologist. He is best known as the author of Straight and Crooked Thinking, which describes flaws in reasoning and argument.

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Trinity Hall, Cambridge College of the University of Cambridge

Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich.

The many-body problem is a general name for a vast category of physical problems pertaining to the properties of microscopic systems made of a large number of interacting particles. Microscopic here implies that quantum mechanics has to be used to provide an accurate description of the system. A large number can be anywhere from 3 to infinity, although three- and four-body systems can be treated by specific means and are thus sometimes separately classified as few-body systems. In such a quantum system, the repeated interactions between particles create quantum correlations, or entanglement. As a consequence, the wave function of the system is a complicated object holding a large amount of information, which usually makes exact or analytical calculations impractical or even impossible. Thus, many-body theoretical physics most often relies on a set of approximations specific to the problem at hand, and ranks among the most computationally intensive fields of science.

Clare Hall, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

Clare Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1966 by Clare College, Clare Hall is a college for advanced study, admitting only postgraduate students alongside postdoctoral researchers and fellows. It was established to serve as an Institute of Advanced Studies and has slowly grown and developed into a full constituent college.

The Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition is a phase transition in the two-dimensional (2-D) XY model. It is a transition from bound vortex-antivortex pairs at low temperatures to unpaired vortices and anti-vortices at some critical temperature. The transition is named for condensed matter physicists Vadim Berezinskii, John M. Kosterlitz and David J. Thouless. BKT transitions can be found in several 2-D systems in condensed matter physics that are approximated by the XY model, including Josephson junction arrays and thin disordered superconducting granular films. More recently, the term has been applied by the 2-D superconductor insulator transition community to the pinning of Cooper pairs in the insulating regime, due to similarities with the original vortex BKT transition.

The Thouless energy is a characteristic energy scale of diffusive disordered conductors. It was first introduced by the Scottish-American physicist David J. Thouless when studying Anderson localization, as a measure of the sensitivity of energy levels to a change in the boundary conditions of the system. Though being a classical quantity, it has been shown to play an important role in the quantum-mechanical treatment of disordered systems.

Betaretrovirus is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice; some primate and sheep viruses are the type D.

<i>Straight and Crooked Thinking</i> book by Robert H. Thouless

Straight and Crooked Thinking, first published in 1930 and revised in 1953, is a book by Robert H. Thouless which describes, assesses and critically analyses flaws in reasoning and argument. Thouless describes it as a practical manual, rather than a theoretical one.

John Hubbard was a British physicist, best known for the Hubbard model for interacting electrons, the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation, and the Hubbard approximations. He graduated from Imperial College London, receiving a B.Sc. (1955) and a Ph.D. degree (1958). He was the Head of the Solid State Theory Group at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell (England), and worked at the IBM Research Laboratory in San Jose, California (1976-1980). Most of his work falls into the field of the theory of magnetism.

The hexatic phase is a phase that is between the solid and the isotropic liquid phases in two dimensional systems of particles. It is characterized by two order parameters: a short-range positional and a quasi-long-range orientational (sixfold) order. More generally, a hexatic is any phase that contains sixfold orientational order, in analogy with the nematic phase.

J. Michael Kosterlitz British physicist

John Michael Kosterlitz is a Scottish born British-American physicist. He is a professor of physics at Brown University and the son of biochemist Hans Kosterlitz. He was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics along with David Thouless and Duncan Haldane for work on condensed matter physics.

The Fernand Holweck Medal and Prize is a major European prize for Physics awarded jointly every year by the British Institute of Physics (IOP) and the Société Française de Physique (SFP). It is one of the four Grand Prix of the SFP and one of the four International Bilateral Awards of the IOP, consisting of a gold medal and a 3000€ cash prize.

Duncan Haldane professor of physics at Princeton University

Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane, known as F. Duncan Haldane, is a British born physicist who is currently the Sherman Fairchild University Professor of Physics at Princeton University, and a Distinguished Visiting Research Chair at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. He is a co-recipient of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics, along with David J. Thouless and John Michael Kosterlitz.

Events from the year 1934 in Scotland.

Bertold Paul Wiesner (1901–1972) was an Austrian Jewish physiologist noted firstly for coining the term 'Psi' to denote parapsychological phenomena; secondly for his contribution to research into human fertility and the diagnosis of pregnancy; and thirdly for being biological father to an estimated 600 offspring by anonymously donating sperm used by his wife the obstetrician Mary Barton to perform artificial insemination on women at a private clinic on Harley Street, London, England.

John Edgar Coover US-American psychologist

John Edgar Coover, also known as J. E. Coover was an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his experiments into extrasensory perception.

Frederick Marion

Frederick Marion was the stage name of Josef Kraus a mentalist and performer who claimed powers of clairvoyance and telepathy. He was investigated by psychical researchers who attributed his abilities to detecting subtle visual clues from his audience.

Adiabatic quantum motor

An adiabatic quantum motor is a mechanical device, typically nanometric, driven by a flux of quantum particles and able to perform cyclic motions. The adjective “adiabatic” in this context refers to the limit when the dynamics of the mechanical degrees of freedom is slow compared with the dwell time of the particles passing through the device. In this regime, it is commonly assumed that the mechanical degrees of freedom behave classically. This class of devices works essentially as quantum pumps operated in reverse. While in a quantum pump, the periodic movement of some parameters pumps quantum particles from one reservoir to another, in a quantum motor a DC current of particles induces the cyclic motion of the device. One key feature of these motors is that quantum interferences can be used to increase their efficiency by enhancing the reflection coefficient of the scattered particles. All though there are several proposals for the realization of adiabatic quantum motors, none of them have been verified experimentally.