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Epiphyte non-parasitic plant that grows upon another plant but is not nourished by it

An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water or from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes take part in nutrient cycles and add to both the diversity and biomass of the ecosystem in which they occur, like any other organism. They are an important source of food for many species. Typically, the older parts of a plant will have more epiphytes growing on them. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that they grow on other plants for physical support and do not necessarily affect the host negatively. An epiphytic organism that is not a plant is sometimes called an epibiont. Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone or in the tropics. Epiphyte species make good houseplants due to their minimal water and soil requirements. Epiphytes provide a rich and diverse habitat for other organisms including animals, fungi, bacteria, and myxomycetes.

Lichenology is the branch of mycology that studies the lichens, symbiotic organisms made up of an intimate symbiotic association of a microscopic alga with a filamentous fungus.

Lichen Symbiosis of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.

Thallus Undifferentiated vegetative tissue of certain organisms

Thallus, from Latinized Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot" or "twig", is the undifferentiated vegetative tissue of some organisms in diverse groups such as algae, fungi, some liverworts, lichens, and the Myxogastria. Many of these organisms were previously known as the thallophytes, a polyphyletic group of distantly related organisms. An organism or structure resembling a thallus is called thalloid, thallodal, thalliform, thalline, or thallose.

Lichen planus lichen disease that is located in skin, located in tongue or located in oral mucosa, which presents itself in the form of papules, lesions or rashes

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory and immune mediated disease that affects the skin, nails, hair, and mucous membranes. It is characterized by polygonal, flat-topped, violaceous papules and plaques with overlying, reticulated, fine white scale, commonly affecting dorsal hands, flexural wrists and forearms, trunk, anterior lower legs and oral mucosa. Although there is a broad clinical range of LP manifestations, the skin and oral cavity remain as the major sites of involvement. The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be the result of an autoimmune process with an unknown initial trigger. There is no cure, but many different medications and procedures have been used in efforts to control the symptoms.

Lichen sclerosus Itchy skin rash usually affecting the genitals

Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease of unknown cause, commonly appearing as whitish patches on the genitals, which can affect any body part of any person but has a strong preference for the genitals and is also known as balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) when it affects the penis. Lichen sclerosus is not contagious. There is a well-documented increase of skin cancer risk in LS, potentially improvable with treatment. LS in adult age is normally incurable, but improvable with treatment, and often gets progressively worse.


Ethnolichenology is the study of the relationship between lichens and people. Lichens have and are being used for many different purposes by human cultures across the world. The most common human use of lichens is for dye, but they have also been used for medicine, food and other purposes.


Koilonychia, also known as spoon nails, is a nail disease that can be a sign of hypochromic anemia, especially iron-deficiency anemia. It refers to abnormally thin nails which have lost their convexity, becoming flat or even concave in shape. In a sense, koilonychia is the opposite of nail clubbing. In early stages nails may be brittle and chip or break easily.

The Battle of the 300 Champions, known since Herodotus' day as the Battle of the Champions, was a battle fought in roughly 546 BC between Argos and Sparta. Rather than commit full armies both sides agreed to pitting 300 of their best men against each other.

Ellinochori, Evros Place in Greece

Ellinochori is a village in the northeastern part of the Evros regional unit in Greece. Ellinochori is part of the municipality of Didymoteicho. It is situated on the left bank of the river Erythropotamos, northwest of the centre of Didymoteicho. In 2011 its population was 593 for the village and 1,373 for the community, including the villages Lagos and Thyrea.

Lichinaceae family of fungi

The Lichinaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized, and have a distribution largely in temperate regions.

<i>Caloplaca marina</i> species of fungus

Caloplaca marina the Orange Sea Lichen is a crustose, placodioid lichen. It has wide distribution, and can be found near the shore on rocks or walls. Calos in Greek means nice, placa in Greek is shield. Caloplaca therefore means ‘beautiful patches’.

Ameliella is a genus of lichenized fungi in the Lecanoraceae family. Described in 2008, the genus contains two species, A. andreaeicola and A. grisea, that were collected from high elevations in the Scottish Highlands. The two species have also been found in single instances in British Columbia and Northern Norway. The generic name is derived from the Greek ameleo, meaning "neglected" or "overlooked"; it was originally intended to be Amelia, which is also the first name of the daughter of one of the authors, but this name had previously been used for another genus and was therefore ineligible for use according to the rules of mycological nomenclature. Ameliella appears to have some similarity with the lichen genus Miriquidica.

Thyrea is a genus of lichenized fungi within the Lichinaceae family. The genus contains about 23 species.

Ephebe (from the Greek ephebos ἔφηβος, anglicised as ephebe, or Latinate ephebus is the term for an adolescent male. In ancient Greek society and mythology, an ephebos was a boy, aged 17–18, who went through a period of initiation that included military training.


Cynuria is an ancient district on the eastern coast of the Peloponnese, between the Argolis and Laconia, so called from the Cynurians, one of the most ancient tribes in the peninsula. It was believed to have taken its name from the mythical Cynurus.

A Byssoid lichen is a lichen with a wispy growth form, having the appearance of teased wool. Coenogonium implexum is a byssoid lichen.


Othryades was the last surviving Spartan of the 300 Spartans selected to fight against 300 Argives in the Battle of the 300 Champions. Ashamed by surviving his comrades, he committed suicide on the field following the battle.

Anthene (Cynuria) ancient city

Anthene, or Anthana (Ἀνθάνα), or Athene (Ἀθήνη), was a town in Cynuria, originally inhabited by the Aeginetans, and mentioned by Thucydides along with Thyrea, as the two chief places in Cynuria.

Eva or Eua (Εὖα) was a village of Cynuria, located inland not far from Neris. Pausanias, who visited the region in the 2nd century, on leaving Thyrea, came first to Anthene, next to Neris, and lastly to Eva, which he describes as the largest of the three villages, containing a sanctuary of Polemocrates, son of Machaon, who was honoured here as a god or hero of the healing art. Above these villages was the range of Mount Parnon, where, not far from the sources of the Tanus or Tanaus, the boundaries of the Lacedaemonians, Argives, and Tegeatae joined, and were marked by stone Hermae. This Eva is probably also meant by Stephanus of Byzantium, though he calls it a city of Arcadia.