Tianjin People's Hospital (formerly Mackenzie Memorial Hospital and Tientsin Mission Hospital and Dispensary) is a hospital in Tianjin, China. Prior to the Chinese Revolution, it was known as Mackenzie Memorial Hospital. Olympian Eric Liddell was born there in 1902.
Tianjin People's Hospital was originally founded as the Tientsin Mission Hospital and Dispensary by Dr. John Kenneth Mackenzie of the London Missionary Society in 1880.Following his death, Mackenzie was succeeded by Dr. Fred C. Roberts, who led the hospital from 1888 until his death in 1894.
Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 15,621,200 in 2016. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.
Eric Henry Liddell was a British Olympic Gold Medalist runner, Scottish rugby union international player, and Christian missionary. He was born in China to Scottish missionary parents. He attended boarding school near London, spending time when possible with his family in Edinburgh, and afterwards attended the University of Edinburgh.
The London Missionary Society was a predominantly Congregationalist missionary society formed in England in 1795 at the instigation of Welsh Congregationalist minister Dr Edward Williams working with evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists. It was largely Reformed in outlook, with Congregational missions in Oceania, Africa, and the Americas, although there were also Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and various other Protestants involved. It now forms part of the Council for World Mission (CWM).
In international relations, a concession is a "synallagmatic act by which a State transfers the exercise of rights or functions proper to itself to a foreign private person which, in turn, participates in the performance of public functions and thus gains a privileged position vis-a-vis other private law subjects within the jurisdiction of the State concerned." International concessions are not defined in international law and do not generally fall under it. Rather, they are governed by the municipal law of the conceding state. There may, however, be a law of succession for such concessions, whereby the concession is continued even when the conceding state ceases to exist.
The Tientsin Massacre, was the most spectacular of many Chinese attacks on Christian missionaries and converts in the late 19th century during the late Qing dynasty. Sixty people died in attacks on French Catholic priests and nuns. There was intense belligerence from French diplomats, and armed foreign intervention in Tianjin (Tientsin) in 1870. The incident nearly precipitated a war and marked an end to relative cooperation between foreign powers and the Tongzhi court, and adversely affected the ongoing renegotiation of the Treaties of Tientsin, first signed in 1858. French Catholic missionaries were active in China; they were funded by appeals in French churches for money. The Holy Childhood Association was a Catholic charity founded in 1843 to rescue Chinese children from infanticide. It was a target of Chinese anti-Christian protests led by the local gentry who saw the need to defend Confucianism. Rioting sparked by false rumors of the killing of babies led to the death of a French consul and provoked a diplomatic crisis.
Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital is an acute district general hospital managed under the New Territories East Cluster of the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Established by the former London Missionary Society in 1887, it was the first teaching hospital in Hong Kong to train cantonese locals in western medical science. It moved to its current location in Tai Po in 1997.
James Gilmour (Chinese:景雅各) was a Scottish Protestant Christian missionary in China and Mongolia. He served with the London Missionary Society.
Medical missions in China by Protestant and Catholic physicians and surgeons of the 19th and early 20th centuries laid many foundations for modern medicine in China. Western medical missionaries established the first modern clinics and hospitals, provided the first training for nurses, and opened the first medical schools in China. Work was also done in opposition to the abuse of opium. Medical treatment and care came to many Chinese who were addicted, and eventually public and official opinion was influenced in favor of bringing an end to the destructive trade. By 1901, China was the most popular destination for medical missionaries. The 150 foreign physicians operated 128 hospitals and 245 dispensaries, treating 1.7 million patients. In 1894, male medical missionaries comprised 14 percent of all missionaries; women doctors were four percent. Modern medical education in China started in the early 20th century at hospitals run by international missionaries.
The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China. A multinational military force, representing the Eight-Nation Alliance, rescued a besieged population of foreign nationals in the city of Tientsin by defeating the Chinese Imperial army and Boxers. The capture of Tientsin gave the Eight-Nation Alliance a base to launch a rescue mission for the foreign nationals besieged in the Legation Quarter of Peking and to capture Beijing in the Battle of Peking (1900).
The growth and development of the American Presbyterian Medical Mission in Weixian, Shandong is an instance of the growth and influence of rural, missionary medicine in China. Moreover, the medical mission at Weixian exemplifies the shift from medicine being a component of evangelism to being able to exist as its own entity.
John Kenneth MacKenzie was an English medical missionary to China. He initially started his work through the London Missionary Society in Hankow in 1875. In Hankow, he treated patients in the London Missionary Society hospital, learned Chinese, and engaged in evangelism. The majority of the cases he treated were eye disease, opium addiction, and cases involving surgery. In 1878, MacKenzie transferred to Tientsin due to the failing health of his wife. In Tientsin, MacKenzie constructed and ran a hospital with the help of the Viceroy's patronage and also established the Tientsin Medical School. MacKenzie also helped in the organisation of the Medical Missionary Association in China and the editing of the Medical Missionary Journal. He employed evangelism in many parts of his work but died an early death in 1888 due to smallpox.
Robert Harold Ainsworth Schofield (1851–1883), known as Harold Schofield, was a British medical missionary in China. Before travelling there, he worked in Europe and the Middle East in hospitals and clinics. He died during his mission to China.
Ernest Cromwell Peake was an English Missionary of the London Missionary Society who worked in China, from 1899 to 1922. He was the first medical missionary to work in Hengchow, in Hunan Province, China where he set up a clinic and dispensary. He was also appointed head of the Mackenzie Memorial Hospital in Tianjin, China in 1912. Peake was known for teaching Chinese locals about medicine, and for being one of the first missionaries to bring modern medical techniques to China. He was the father of Mervyn Peake, the writer and poet.
Isabella Fisher Hospital was located in Tientsin, China. Built in 1881 and opened in 1882, it was founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church (South).
Fred Prosper Manget was an American doctor, public servant, and medical missionary. He served for forty years in China from 1909 until the end of World War II. In 1909 Manget left the U.S. for China to pursue missionary work. He received recognition from state and local organizations for his service to the poor and elderly and for his Christian humanitarian efforts abroad. Manget is most notable for founding the Huzhou General Hospital in China. Huzhou General Hospital is specifically noted for its role in spreading western medical practices to northern China. He ran several clinics and dispensaries in his mission work as well as at home in the state of Georgia.
William Burns Thomson was a Scottish medical missionary born in Kirriemuir, Scotland to Christian parents. Thomson dedicated his life to the spread of the gospel and to medical missionary work. His work as part of the Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society(EMMS) transformed the organization from its focus on the slums of Scotland to an international missionary aid organization. During his time with EMMS, Dr. Thomson advocated for missionaries across the globe, including Dr. Kaloost Vartan of the Nazareth Hospital and Dr. William Jackson Elmslie in Kashmir. Dr. Thomson also served as a pioneer for medical missionary training by creating the original EMMS training school at the Cowgate dispensary. This led to more training schools being created in other parts of the world, like Bombay(now known as Mumbai) and Calcutta(now known as Kolkata), India.
Frederick Charles Roberts was an English physician and medical missionary who served with the London Missionary Society in Mongolia and China. Roberts spent his entire career as a practicing physician in East Asia, dying in China after seven years of mission work. He is best known for his contributions as the sole medical provider and second director at the Tientsin Mission Hospital and Dispensary in China, where he treated an estimated 120-150 patients a day, and for his famine relief efforts in the rural districts outside Tientsin. He also taught at the first Western medical school in China and is the namesake of Roberts Memorial Hospital, which was established in T'sangchou, China in 1903.
Roberts Memorial Hospital was a mission hospital established by the London Missionary Society in T'sangchou, China in 1903.
The Manchurian plague was a pneumonic plague that occurred between 1910 and 1911. It mainly hit the area of Manchuria, although some cases were reported in other places like Peking and Tianjin. Since there was no vaccine, the plague was very deadly, with estimates that it killed around 60,000 people, including doctors and nurses.
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