Spread Spectrum Time Domain Vernier Method or SSTDV, is a time domain reflectometry method that uses a spread spectrum time domain reflectometry signal to locate intermittent faults in wires (such as aircraft wires) by measuring time delay between incident and reflected signals. SSTDR uses a pseudo noise (PN) code as the test signal. This code travels down the length of the wire, where it is reflected off of impedance discontinuities such as open or short circuits. The reflected signal is correlated with the incident signal to identify the locations of these discontinuities. In the case of SSTDV, the correlation is accomplished by adding one bit to the PN code each cycle, thus creating a vernier sequence that can be used to resolve the time delay between incident and reflected signals.
Spread-spectrum time-domain reflectometry (SSTDR) is a measurement technique to identify faults, usually in electrical wires, by observing reflected spread spectrum signals. This type of time-domain reflectometry can be used in various high-noise and live environments. Additionally, SSTDR systems have the additional benefit of being able to precisely locate the position of the fault. Specifically, SSTDR is accurate to within a few centimeters for wires carrying 400 Hz aircraft signals as well as MIL-STD-1553 data bus signals. AN SSTDR system can be run on a live wire because the spread spectrum signals can be isolated from the system noise and activity.
In cryptography, pseudorandom noise is a signal similar to noise which satisfies one or more of the standard tests for statistical randomness. Although it seems to lack any definite pattern, pseudorandom noise consists of a deterministic sequence of pulses that will repeat itself after its period.
Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
In telecommunications, direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) is a spread spectrum modulation technique used to reduce overall signal interference. The spreading of this signal makes the resulting wideband channel more noisy, allowing for greater resistance to unintentional and intentional interference.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share a scarce resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire. Multiplexing originated in telegraphy in the 1870s, and is now widely applied in communications. In telephony, George Owen Squier is credited with the development of telephone carrier multiplexing in 1910.
In telecommunication and radio communication, spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference, noise and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux density.
A time-domain reflectometer (TDR) is an electronic instrument that uses time-domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables. It can also be used to locate discontinuities in a connector, printed circuit board, or any other electrical path. The equivalent device for optical fiber is an optical time-domain reflectometer.
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber. Some of the signal power may be reflected back to its origin rather than being carried all the way along the cable to the far end. This happens because imperfections in the cable cause impedance mismatches and non-linear changes in the cable characteristics. These abrupt changes in characteristics cause some of the transmitted signal to be reflected. In radio frequency (RF) practice this is often measured in a dimensionless ratio known as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) with a VSWR bridge. The ratio of energy bounced back depends on the impedance mismatch. Mathematically, it is defined using the reflection coefficient.
In telecommunications and computer networks, a channel access method or multiple access method allows more than two terminals connected to the same transmission medium to transmit over it and to share its capacity. Examples of shared physical media are wireless networks, bus networks, ring networks and point-to-point links operating in half-duplex mode.
Multi-carrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is a multiple access scheme used in OFDM-based telecommunication systems, allowing the system to support multiple users at the same time over same frequency band.
GNSS reflectometry involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems such as GPS. It is also known as GPS reflectometry.
In telecommunications, a diversity scheme refers to a method for improving the reliability of a message signal by using two or more communication channels with different characteristics. Diversity is mainly used in radio communication and is a common technique for combatting fading and co-channel interference and avoiding error bursts. It is based on the fact that individual channels experience different levels of fading and interference. Multiple versions of the same signal may be transmitted and/or received and combined in the receiver. Alternatively, a redundant forward error correction code may be added and different parts of the message transmitted over different channels. Diversity techniques may exploit the multipath propagation, resulting in a diversity gain, often measured in decibels.
In digital communications, a chip is a pulse of a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code, such as a Pseudo-random Noise (PN) code sequence used in direct-sequence code division multiple access (CDMA) channel access techniques.
Carrier Interferometry(CI) is a spread spectrum scheme designed to be used in an Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) communication system for multiplexing and multiple access, enabling the system to support multiple users at the same time over the same frequency band.
Fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is a subfield of control engineering which concerns itself with monitoring a system, identifying when a fault has occurred, and pinpointing the type of fault and its location. Two approaches can be distinguished: A direct pattern recognition of sensor readings that indicate a fault and an analysis of the discrepancy between the sensor readings and expected values, derived from some model. In the latter case, it is typical that a fault is said to be detected if the discrepancy or residual goes above a certain threshold. It is then the task of fault isolation to categorize the type of fault and its location in the machinery. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) techniques can be broadly classified into two categories. These include model-based FDI and signal processing based FDI.
Noise-domain reflectometry is a type of reflectometry where the reflectometer exploits existing data signals on wiring and does not have to generate any signals itself. Noise-domain reflectometry, like time-domain and spread-spectrum time domain reflectometers, is most often used in identifying the location of wire faults in electrical lines.
Chipless RFID tags are RFID tags that do not require a microchip in the transponder.
Reflectometry uses the reflection of waves at surfaces and interfaces to detect or characterize objects.
Vernier spectroscopy is a type of cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy that is especially sensitive to trace gases. The method uses a frequency comb laser combined with a high finesse optical cavity to produce an absorption spectrum in a highly parallel manner. The method is also capable of detecting trace gases in very low concentration due to the enhancement effect of the optical resonator on the effective optical path length.
Time-domain reflectometry or TDR is a measurement technique used to determine the characteristics of electrical lines by observing reflected waveforms. Time-domain transmissometry (TDT) is an analogous technique that measures the transmitted impulse. Together, they provide a powerful means of analysing electrical or optical transmission media such as coaxial cable and optical fiber.