The nuclear program of the Republic of China can be represented as a Timeline of the Taiwan-based Republic of China's nuclear program.
|1945||Japan formally surrenders on the deck of the U.S. battleship Missouri, ending World War II. Japan begins the process of returning to China all the territories it had colonized, including Taiwan |
|1949||Mao stresses the importance of eventual unification with Taiwan under a principle of "one China," which will be foundation for the Chinese government's policy on Taiwan for the next 50 years. |
|1950||On June 27 U.S. President Harry Truman agrees to protect Taiwan against a possible attack from mainland China and sends the Seventh Fleet to patrol the waters between Taiwan and China. |
|1954||U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower signs a Mutual Defense Treaty with the ROC, promising U.S. protection for Taiwan. |
|1956||National Tsinghua University in Taiwan is reestablished where the university built the nation's first research nuclear reactor and began training atomic energy specialists. |
|1964||Taiwan launched a nuclear weapons program after the first Chinese nuclear test in October 1964. |
|1964||The military Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology developed the "Hsin Chu Program" which included the purchase of a heavy-water reactor, a heavy-water production plant, and a plutonium separation plant. |
|1968||Taiwan signed the Non-proliferation Treaty |
|1968||The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established as the sole national institute in Taiwan specialized in nuclear technology R&D programs. |
|1969||INER purchased a small (40 MWT) heavy-water research reactor from Canada began work on it in September and finished it in April 1973 Canada furnished Taiwan with heavy water and 25 tons of natural Uranium. |
|1969||Work began on other INER facilities, a plant to produce natural uranium fuel, a reprocessing facility, and a plutonium chemistry laboratory |
|1970||Work began on a fuel reprocessing facility at the "Hot Laboratory" |
|1971||On Oct. 25 Taiwan is "expelled" from the United Nations and IAEA. The seat is given to the People's Republic of China as the sole representative of China.  |
|1972||The fuel-fabrication plant began operating in 1972 or 1973, using a supply of natural uranium from South Africa, It was expected to produce about 20–30 metric tons of fuel a year roughly twice as much as the research reactor required. |
|1974||The US CIA stated "Taipei conducts its small nuclear program with a weapon option clearly in mind, and it will be in a position to fabricate a nuclear device after five years or so." |
|1976||In September President Chiang Ching-kuo stated that Taiwan would not develop reprocessing facilities or engage in reprocessing. |
|1978||On Dec. 15 the United States announces it will terminate its diplomatic relations with Taiwan on Jan. 1, 1979. |
|1987||On July 15 the end of martial law is declared in Taiwan. |
|1988||Taiwan shut down the TRR reactor. |
|1988||INER became a part of the Atomic Energy Council. |
|1995||President Lee Teng-hui told the national assembly: "We should restudy the question [of nuclear weapons] from a long-term point of view." He added: "Everyone knows we had had the plan before." |
|1995||A few days later, Lee states that Taiwan "has the ability to develop nuclear weapons, but will definitely not" develop them. |
|2000||On Feb. 21 China issues a White Paper warning more explicitly than before that Taiwan's further heel dragging on reunification–let alone any declaration of independence–could force China to take "drastic measures." |
|2004||Speculation over a covert Taiwanese nuclear program intensified on October 13, after the Associated Press reported that IAEA officials disclosed they had evidence that Taiwan experimented with plutonium during the early 1980s. |
|2006||The US Defense Department mistakenly shipped secret nuclear missile fuses to Taiwan and did not learn that the items were missing until 2008 |
|2006||Officials with the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) mistakenly sent four nose-cone fuse assemblies to Taiwan in August. These fuses help trigger nuclear warheads on Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missiles as they near their point of impact. |
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. Between 1965 and 1968, the treaty was negotiated by the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, a United Nations-sponsored organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, as governments fear that more countries with nuclear weapons will increase the possibility of nuclear warfare, de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of nation states.
The Republic of China Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of China (ROC) once governed Mainland China in the Mainland period and now controls the remaining jurisdictions of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and the other associated islands. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Military Police Force. The military is under the civilian control of the Ministry of National Defense, a cabinet-level agency overseen by the Legislative Yuan.
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons. The first of China's nuclear weapons tests took place in 1964, and its first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. Tests continued until 1996, when China signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). China has acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984 and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997.
A policy of deliberate ambiguity is the practice by a government of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy. It may be useful if the country has contrary foreign and domestic policy goals or if it wants to take advantage of risk aversion to abet a deterrence strategy. Such a policy can be very risky as it may cause misinterpretation of the intentions of a state, leading to actions that contradict that state's wishes.
Taiwan pursued a number of weapons of mass destruction programs from 1949 to the late 1980s. The final secret nuclear weapons program was shut down in the late 1980s under US pressure after completing all stages of weapons development besides final assembly and testing; they lacked an effective delivery mechanism and would have needed to further miniaturize any weapon before it could be effectively used in combat. Currently, there is no evidence of Taiwan possessing any chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons; but nuclear weapons from the United States have been deployed in the past during periods of heightened regional tensions with China, such as during the First Taiwan Strait Crisis.
The First Taiwan Strait Crisis was a brief armed conflict between the Communist People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Nationalist Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan. The conflict focused on several groups of islands in the Taiwan Strait that were held by the ROC but were located only a few miles from mainland China. The crisis began when the PRC shelled the ROC-held island of Kinmen (Quemoy). Later, the PRC seized the Yijiangshan Islands from the ROC. Under pressure by the PRC, the ROC then abandoned the Tachen Islands, which were evacuated by the navies of the ROC and the US.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons under the apartheid government. Six nuclear weapons were assembled. South African strategy was, if political and military instability in Southern Africa became unmanageable, to conduct a nuclear weapon test in a location such as the Kalahari desert, where an underground testing site had been prepared, to demonstrate its capability and resolve—and thereby highlight the peril of intensified conflict in the region—and then invite a larger power such as the United States to intervene.
In the 1970s and 1980s, during the military regime, Brazil had a secret program intended to develop nuclear weapons. The program was dismantled in 1990, five years after the military regime ended, and Brazil is considered free of weapons of mass destruction.
Iran is not known to currently possess weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and has signed treaties repudiating the possession of WMDs including the Biological Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Iran has first-hand knowledge of WMD effects—over 100,000 Iranian troops and civilians were victims of chemical weapons during the 1980s Iran–Iraq War.
National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology is a Taiwanese state owned corporation, formerly part of the Republic of China Ministry of National Defense's Armaments Bureau, which is active in the development, manufacturing, support, and sustainment of various weapons systems and dual use technologies.
The Formosa Resolution of 1955 was a joint resolution passed by the U.S. Senate and signed by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 29, 1955, to counteract the threat of an invasion of Taiwan by the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The resolution gave the U.S. President the authority “to employ the Armed Forces of the United States as he deems necessary for the specific purpose of securing and protecting Formosa and the Pescadores against armed attack [by the Communists]”.
Project 596, was the first nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China, detonated on 16 October 1964, at the Lop Nur test site. It was a uranium-235 implosion fission device made from weapons-grade uranium (U-235) enriched in a gaseous diffusion plant in Lanzhou.
The timeline of the Cox Report controversy is a chronology of information relating to the People's Republic of China's (PRC) nuclear espionage against the United States detailed in the Congressional Cox Report. The timeline also includes documented information relating to relevant investigations and reactions by the White House, the U.S. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and United States Department of Justice.
The bilateral relationship between Taiwan and the United States of America are the subject of the Japan-U.S. relations during Japanese colonial rule and China-U.S.relations before the government of the Republic of China (ROC) led by the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan and its neighboring islands as a result of the Chinese Civil War and until the U.S. ceased recognizing the ROC in 1979 as "China" as a result of the One China policy following the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations under the Carter administration. Prior to relations with the ROC, the United States had diplomatic relations with the Qing dynasty beginning on June 16, 1844 until 1912.
This timeline of nuclear weapons development is a chronological catalog of the evolution of nuclear weapons rooting from the development of the science surrounding nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. In addition to the scientific advancements, this timeline also includes several political events relating to the development of nuclear weapons. The availability of intelligence on recent advancements in nuclear weapons of several major countries is limited because of the classification of technical knowledge of nuclear weapons development.
South Africa–Taiwan relations, also before 1998: Republic of China–South Africa relations refers to the current and historical relationship between the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the Republic of South Africa. The Republic of China and South Africa established diplomatic ties in 1949.
This article shows various estimates of the nuclear weapon stockpiles of various countries at various points in time. This article also shows the number of nuclear weapons tests conducted by each country at various points in time.