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Tiruvalla copper plates, also known as the Huzur Treasury Plates, are a collection of medieval temple committee resolutions found at the Sreevallabha Temple, Tiruvalla, Kerala.The collection of plates, engraved in old Malayalam language in Vattezhuthu with Grantha script can be dated to 10th and 11th centuries. The inscriptions mention Chola king Parantaka (907-955 CE), his Malayali queen Kizhan Atikal and Chera king at Kodungallur Bhaskara Ravi "Manukuladitya" (962-1021 CE).
Sreevallabha Temple is a highly orthodox Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Sreevallabhan. It is one of the oldest and biggest Temples of Kerala, and has been a major destination for devotees all over India for centuries. Located in Thiruvalla city, this ocean of orthodoxy is well known for its architectural grandeur and unique customs that can be found in no other temples. There are stone-wooden carvings and mural paintings inside the temple. Being one among 108 Divya Desams, Sreevallabha temple has been glorified by Alvars and many other ancient works. It is considered to be the vallabha kshethram mentioned in Garuda Purana and Matsya Purana. Kathakali is played daily in the temple as an offering, pushing it to the top in India in terms of places where Kathakali is staged in largest number of days per year. Lord Vishnu appeared here as Sreevallabhan for sage Durvasa and Khandakarnan. Pleased by prayers of an old Brahmin lady Sreevallabhan incarnated as a brahmachari and killed the demon Thokalaasuran. Later the deity of Sreevallabhan worshipped by Lakshmi and Krishna has been installed in the temple in 59 BC. From then till date, the temple follows its own worship protocol that is known to be followed nowhere else yet. Sage Durvasa and Saptarishi are said to reach the temple every midnight for worshipping the Lord. The temple had governed one of the biggest educational institutions in ancient time and heavily contributed to the cultural and educational developments of Kerala
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.
Parantaka Chola I (907–955) ruled the Chola kingdom in Tamil Nadu southern India for forty-eight years, annexing Pandya. The best part of his reign was marked by increasing success and prosperity.
The contents of the copper plates belong to different periods. The plates were collected, rearranged and edited at a late date. The plates are considered as a treasure trove of information about medieval temple rituals, deities, festivals, castes, professions, personal names, plot names, and prices.
The Tiruvalla copper plates consist of forty three plates, but around half a dozen plates are missing.The plates were first published in Travancore Archaeological Series by T. A. Gopinatha Rao, under the title "The Huzur Treasury Plates".
T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1872-1919) was an Indian archaeologist and epigraphist with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) who contributed regularly to the journal Epigraphia Indica. He was appointed first Superintendent of the Travancore Archaeology Department in 1908. During his tenure, Rao edited Travancore Archaeological Series volumes 1 and 2.
The Pandya Dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India, one of the three ethnically Tamil lineages, the other two being the Chola and the Chera. The rulers of the three dynasties were referred to as "the three crowned rulers of the Tamil country". The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including the large portions of present-day south India and Sri Lanka.
Tiruvalla, alternately spelled Thiruvalla, is a town and also the headquarters of the Taluk of same name located in Pathanamthitta district in the State of Kerala, India. The town is spread over an area of 27.94 km . It lies on the banks of the rivers Manimala and Pamba, and is a land-locked region surrounded by irrigating streams and rivers.
Niranam is a census village in Tiruvalla, in Kerala, India. It was a port in ancient Kerala, on the confluence of the Manimala and Pamba River. It is almost 8 km from Tiruvalla SCS Junction in Pathanamthitta District of Kerala, lies to the western part of Tiruvalla, identified as Upper Kuttanad region. It can be identified with Nelcynda in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Venad was a medieval kingdom lying between the Western Ghat mountains and the Arabian Sea on the south-western tip of India with its headquarters at the port of Kollam/Quilon. It was one of the major principalities of Kerala, along with kingdoms of Kannur (Kolathunadu), Kozhikode and Kochi (Perumpadappu) in medieval and early modern period.
The Chera dynasty was one of the principal lineages in the early history of the present day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India. Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers (muventar) of ancient Tamilakam in the early centuries of the Common Era.
The Cholas were a Tamil kingdom of the pre and post Sangam period were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. Their early capitals were Urayur and Kaveripattinam. Along with Pandyas and Cheras, Chola history goes back to the period where written records were scarce.
The Alupa also known as Alva was an ancient ruling dynasty of India. The kingdom they ruled was known as Alvakheda Arusasira and its territory spanned the Coastal districts of the modern Indian state known as Karnataka. The cultural region of Tulu Nadu was the core of their territory. The Alupas were initially independent but with the dominance of Kadambas from Banavasi, they became feudatory to them. Later they became the vassals of the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas with the change in political scenario of Southern India. Their influence over coastal Karnataka lasted for about 1200 years. There is evidence that the Alupas followed the law of matrilineal inheritance (Aliyasantana) since the Alupa king Soyideva was succeeded by his nephew Kulasekhara Bankideva. The legendary king who is credited with introducing matrilineality in Tulu Nadu is named Bhuta Alupa Pandya The name Alva survives as a surname even today among Bunt landlords who are Matrilineal The last Alupa king to have ruled is Kulasekharadeva Alupendradeva whose inscription dated 1444 CE have been found in Mudabidri
Vazhappally is a suburb of Changanasserry Municipality, Kottayam District, in central Kerala. The famous Vazhappally Shiva Temple is situated in Vazhappally. Vazhappally is a part of Changanacherry Taluk in Kottayam District. It is located in the city of Changanacherry and Vazhappally Panchayath. The ancient Vazhappally gramam (village) was shifted to the Changanassery Municipality, so small portions of the village were reunited in the Municipal Town of Changanassery, while the rest were reconstructed in the Vazhappally Gram Panchayat.
Jainism, one of the three most ancient Indian religious traditions still in existence, has very small presence (0.01%) in Kerala, in south India. According to the 2011 India Census, Kerala only has around 4500 Jains, most of them in the city of Cochin and in Wynad district.
Ay dynasty, also known as Kupaka in medieval period, were an Indian ruling lineage which controlled the south-western tip of the peninsula, from the early historic period up to the medieval period. The clan traditionally held sway over the harbour of Vizhinjam, the fertile region of Nanjinad, and southern parts of the spice-producing Western Ghat mountains.
Manigiramam, or manigramam, typically refers to a medieval merchant guild, organised by itinerant ethnic Indian traders, primarily active in south India. Along with the ainurruvar and the anjuvannam, the manigiramam played a major role in the commercial activities of the region. Unlike the anjuvannam which was confined to the port-towns of south India, the manigramam is found both in the port-towns and in the hinter-land trade centres.
Indian copper plate inscriptions play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. Prior to their discovery, historians were forced to rely on ambiguous archaeological findings such as religious text of uncertain origin and interpretations of bits of surviving traditions, patched together with travel journals of foreign visitors along with a few stone inscriptions. The discovery of Indian copper plate inscriptions provided a relative abundance of new evidence for use in evolving a chronicle of India's elusive history.
Rajashekhara, proposed full name Rama Rajashekhara, was a Chera ruler at Kodungallur in medieval Kerala, south India. Rajasekhara is usually identified by historians with Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, the venerated Shaiva (Nayanar) poet-musician.
Vazhappally Maha Siva Temple is a Hindu temple located in Vazhappally near Changanassery in Kottayam district in the Indian state of Kerala. The temple is administered by the Travancore Devaswom Board. The temple is believed to be constructed by the first Chera king of Kodungallur. The legends suggest that the installation of the idol of god Mahadeva (Shiva) was performed by Parasurama himself. This temple is one among the 108 Shiva temples established by Parasurama. It is one of the few temples in Kerala where two nalambalams and two flag-masts are dedicated. The temple, a Grama Kshetra, also contains some seventeenth century wood carvings depicting figurines from epics. A Vattezhuttu inscription on the northern part of the base of the cultural shrine indicates that the repairs were completed in Kollam Era 840 (1665 AD).
Jewish copper plates of Cochin, also known as Cochin plates of Bhaskara Ravivarman, is a royal charter issued by the Chera/Kulasekhara king at Kodungallur, south India to Joseph Rabban, a Jewish merchant living in the entrepôt. The charter shows the status and importance of the Jewish colony in Kodungallur. It is engraved in Vattezhuthu and Grantha scripts in old Malayalam language. Although the traditional date according to the Cochin Jews is 379 CE, the presently accepted date of this charter is c. 1000 CE.
This is the history of Pathanamthitta district.
Viraraghava copper plates, dated 1225 CE, ofCochin, or Kottayam plates of Viraraghava Chakravartin, or Syrian Christian copper plate, or Iravi Kortann's Plate, describe the concession made by the local king Viraraghava to Christian merchant Iravikorttan, the chief of Manikkiramam (Manigiramam) in Makotaiyar Pattinam.
Ko Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli was the traditional title of the queens/princesses of the Kodungallur Chera kingdom in medieval south India. It was initially assumed that Kizhan Adikal was a proper given name.
Vazhappally copper plate is a copper plate inscription in Malayalam language from Vazhappally, in the state of Kerala, south India. The inscription relates to the rule of Kodungallur Chera king Rama Rajasekhara. It is the earliest available epigraphical record mentioning a Kodungallur Chera king. The inscription was discovered by V. Srinivasa Sastri.
Thiruvatta Mahadeva Temple is an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva is situated on the banks of the Manimalayar (river) in Thiruvalla of Pathanamthitta District in Kerala state in India. References to this temple is found in Vazhappally inscription relates to the rule of Kodungallur Chera king Rama Rajasekhara and temple at Vazhappally. It is the earliest available epigraphical record mentioning a Kodungallur Chera king and written in Malayalam language. According to folklore, sage Parashurama has installed the idol of Lord Shiva in the Treta Yuga. The temple is a part of the 108 famous Shiva temples in Kerala.
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