Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant.
Titration may also refer to:
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton (i.e. hydrogen ion, H+), known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid.
Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte. A reagent, termed the titrant or titrator, is prepared as a standard solution of known concentration and volume. The titrant reacts with a solution of analyte to determine the analyte's concentration. The volume of titrant that reacted with the analyte is termed the titration volume.
A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Differential scanning calorimeters, isothermal micro calorimeters, titration calorimeters and accelerated rate calorimeters are among the most common types. A simple calorimeter just consists of a thermometer attached to a metal container full of water suspended above a combustion chamber. It is one of the measurement devices used in the study of thermodynamics, chemistry, and biochemistry.
A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually or spectroscopically by changes in absorption and/or emission properties. Hence, a pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions (H3O+) or hydrogen ions (H+) in the Arrhenius model.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, mining, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity. The measured entity is often called the analyte, the measurand, or the target of the assay. The analyte can be a drug, biochemical substance, chemical element or compound, or cell in an organism or organic sample. An assay usually aims to measure an analyte's intensive property and express it in the relevant measurement unit.
In analytical chemistry, Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method that uses colometric or volumetric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample. It was invented in 1935 by the German chemist Karl Fischer. Today, the titration is done with an automated Karl Fischer titrator.
In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation is a chemical reaction in which acid and a base react with an equivalent quantity of each other. In a reaction in water, neutralization results in there being no excess of hydrogen or hydroxide ions present in the solution. The pH of the neutralized solution depends on the acid strength of the reactants.
A redox titration is a type of titration based on a redox reaction between the analyte and titrant. It may involve the use of a redox indicator and/or a potentiometer. A common example of a redox titration is treating a solution of iodine with a reducing agent to produce iodide using a starch indicator to help detect the endpoint. Iodine (I2) can be reduced to iodide (I−) by, say, thiosulfate (S2O2−3), and when all iodine is spent the blue colour disappears. This is called an iodometric titration.
Complexometric titration is a form of volumetric analysis in which the formation of a colored complex is used to indicate the end point of a titration. Complexometric titrations are particularly useful for the determination of a mixture of different metal ions in solution. An indicator capable of producing an unambiguous color change is usually used to detect the end-point of the titration. Complexometric titration are those reactions where a simple ion is transformed into a complex ion and the equivalence point is determined by using metal indicators or electrometrically.
An acid–base titration is a method of quantitative analysis for determining the concentration of Brønsted-Lowry acid or base (titrate) by neutralizing it using a solution of known concentration (titrant). A pH indicator is used to monitor the progress of the acid–base reaction and a titration curve can be constructed.
In analytical electrochemistry, coulometry determines the amount of matter transformed during an electrolysis reaction by measuring the amount of electricity consumed or produced. It can be used for precision measurements of charge, and the amperes even used to have a coulometric definition. However, today coulometry is mainly used for analytical applications. It is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb.
The equivalence point, or stoichiometric point, of a chemical reaction is the point at which chemically equivalent quantities of reactants have been mixed. For an acid-base reaction the equivalence point is where the moles of acid and the moles of base would neutralize each other according to the chemical reaction. This does not necessarily imply a 1:1 molar ratio of acid:base, merely that the ratio is the same as in the chemical reaction. It can be found by means of an indicator, for example phenolphthalein or methyl orange.
Amperometric titration refers to a class of titrations in which the equivalence point is determined through measurement of the electric current produced by the titration reaction. It is a form of quantitative analysis.
Iodometry, known as iodometric titration, is a method of volumetric chemical analysis, a redox titration where the appearance or disappearance of elementary iodine indicates the end point.
In analytical chemistry, a standard solution is a solution containing a precisely known concentration of an element or a substance. A known mass of solute is dissolved to make a specific volume. It is prepared using a standard substance, such as a primary standard. Standard solutions are used to determine the concentrations of other substances, such as solutions in titration. The concentrations of standard solutions are normally expressed in units of moles per litre, moles per cubic decimetre (mol/dm3), kilomoles per cubic metre (kmol/m3) or in terms related to those used in particular titrations. A simple standard is obtained by the dilution of a single element or a substance in a soluble solvent with which it reacts. A primary standard is a reagent that is extremely pure, stable, has no waters of hydration, and has high molecular weight. Some primary standards of titration of acids include sodium carbonate.
In chemical thermodynamics, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a physical technique used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of interactions in solution. It is most often used to study the binding of small molecules to larger macromolecules in a label-free environment. It consists of two cells which are enclosed in an adiabatic jacket. The compounds to be studied are placed in the sample cell, while the other cell, the reference cell, is used as a control and contains the buffer in which the sample is dissolved.
In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.
A thermometric titration is one of a number of instrumental titration techniques where endpoints can be located accurately and precisely without a subjective interpretation on the part of the analyst as to their location. Enthalpy change is arguably the most fundamental and universal property of chemical reactions, so the observation of temperature change is a natural choice in monitoring their progress. It is not a new technique, with possibly the first recognizable thermometric titration method reported early in the 20th century. In spite of its attractive features, and in spite of the considerable research that has been conducted in the field and a large body of applications that have been developed; it has been until now an under-utilized technique in the critical area of industrial process and quality control. Automated potentiometric titration systems have pre-dominated in this area since the 1970s. With the advent of cheap computers able to handle the powerful thermometric titration software, development has now reached the stage where easy to use automated thermometric titration systems can in many cases offer a superior alternative to potentiometric titrimetry.
Conductometry is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has notable application in analytical chemistry, where conductometric titration is a standard technique. In usual analytical chemistry practice, the term conductometry is used as a synonym of conductometric titration while the term conductimetry is used to describe non-titrative applications. Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that include ions.
Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.