Tolerable dose

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Tolerable dose may refer to:

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Riboflavin chemical compound

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines. It may be given by mouth or injection.

Pantothenic acid chemical compound

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The anion is called pantothenate.

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances. The DRI values differ from those used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada, which uses Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and Daily Values (%DV) which were based on outdated RDAs from 1968 but were updated as of 2016.

Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ADIs are expressed usually in milligrams per kilograms of body weight per day.

Sodium selenite chemical compound

Sodium selenite is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SeO3. This salt is a colourless solid. The pentahydrate Na2SeO3(H2O)5 is the most common water-soluble selenium compound.

Copper gluconate is the copper salt of D-gluconic acid. It is an odorless light blue or blue-green crystal or powder which is easily soluble in water and insoluble in ethanol.

Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases. Megavitamin therapy is typically used in alternative medicine by practitioners who call their approach orthomolecular medicine. Vitamins are useful in preventing and treating illnesses specifically associated with dietary vitamin shortfalls, but the conclusions of medical research are that the broad claims of disease treatment by advocates of megavitamin therapy are unsubstantiated by the available evidence. It is generally accepted that doses of any vitamin greatly in excess of nutritional requirements will result either in toxicity or in the excess simply being metabolised; thus evidence in favour of vitamin supplementation supports only doses in the normal range. Critics have described some aspects of orthomolecular medicine as food faddism or even quackery. Research on nutrient supplementation in general suggests that some nutritional supplements might be beneficial, and that others might be harmful; several specific nutritional therapies are associated with an increased likelihood of the condition they are meant to prevent.

Palifermin is a truncated human recombinant keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) produced in Escherichia coli. KGF stimulates the growth of cells that line the surface of the mouth and intestinal tract.

Almotriptan chemical compound

Almotriptan is a triptan drug discovered and developed by Almirall for the treatment of heavy migraine headache.

Pantethine (bis-pantethine or co-enzyme pantethine) is a dimeric form of pantetheine, which is produced from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) by the addition of cysteamine. Pantethine was discovered by Gene Brown, a PhD student at the time. Pantethine is composed of two molecules of pantetheine linked by a bridging disulfide. Pantetheine is an intermediate in the production of coenzyme A by the body. Most vitamin B5 supplements are in the form of calcium pantothenate, a salt of pantothenic acid, with doses in the range of 5 to 10 mg/day. In contrast, pantethine is sold as a dietary supplement for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides at doses of 500 to 1200 mg/day.

Vitamin C megadosage

Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C in doses well beyond the current Recommended Dietary Allowance of 90 mg/day, and often well beyond the Tolerable upper intake level of 2,000 mg/day. There is no scientific evidence that megadosage helps to cure or prevent cancer, the common cold, or a variety of other medical conditions.

A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit. The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. The term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes, but may be used to describe any case where a substance is introduced to the body. In nutrition, the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement. For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. For information on dosage of toxic substances, see Toxicology. For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose.

Blonanserin chemical compound

Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia. Relative to many other antipsychotics, blonanserin has an improved tolerability profile, lacking side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms, excessive sedation, or hypotension. As with many second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics it is significantly more efficacious in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared to first-generation (typical) antipsychotics such as haloperidol.

Internal dosimetry is the science and art of internal ionising radiation dose assessment due to radionuclides incorporated inside the human body.

A co-carcinogen is a chemical that promotes the effects of a carcinogen in the production of cancer. Usually, the term is used to refer to chemicals that are not carcinogenic on their own, such that an equivalent amount of the chemical is insufficient to initiate carcinogenesis. A chemical can be co-carcinogenic with other chemicals or with nonchemical carcinogens, such as UV radiation.

Velusetrag chemical compound

Velusetrag (INN, USAN; previously known as TD-5108) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of gastric neuromuscular disorders including gastroparesis, and lower gastrointestinal motility disorders including chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT4 receptor serotonin agonist being developed by Theravance Biopharma and Alfa Wassermann. Velusetrag demonstrates less selectivity for other serotonin receptors, such as 5-HT2 and 5-HT3, to earlier generation 5-HT agonists like cisapride and tegaserod.

Tolerable daily intake (TDI) refers to the daily amount of a chemical that has been assessed safe for human being on long-term basis. Originally acceptable daily intake (ADI) was introduced in 1961 to define the daily intake of a food additive which, during the entire lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk. For contaminants and other foreign chemicals not used intentionally, the term TDI is often preferred. Both ADI and TDI are usually assessed based on animal experiments, and it is most often hundreds of times lower than the dose causing no observable adverse effect (NOAEL) in the most sensitive tested animal species. Because the uncertainty factors may vary depending on the quality of data and the type of adverse effect, TDI values are not good estimates of the harmfulness of chemicals, and must be considered administrative tools to set allowable limits for chemicals, rather than scientific measures. The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects.

Tolerable weekly intake (TWI) estimates the amount per unit body weight of a potentially harmful substance or contaminant in food or water that can be ingested over a lifetime without risk of adverse health effects. TWI is generally preceded by "provisional" to indicate insufficient data exists, increasing uncertainty. The term TWI should be reserved for when there is a well-established and internationally accepted tolerance, backed by sound and uncontested data. Although similar in concept to tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is of the same derivation of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), TWI accounts for contaminants that do not clear the body quickly and may accumulate within the body over a period of time. An example is heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. The concept of TWI takes into account daily variations in human consumption patterns.

Deutetrabenazine Chemical compound

Deutetrabenazine is a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor which is used for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington’s disease and tardive dyskinesia.

Megavitamin-B6 syndrome is the ICD-10 name for the collection of symptoms that can result from chronic supplementation, or acute overdose, of vitamin B6. It is also known as hypervitaminosis B6, vitamin B6 toxicity and vitamin B6 excess.