Truffle (disambiguation)

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The truffle is the edible body of fungi in the genus Tuber.

Truffle or Truffles may also refer to:

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Edible mushroom Fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi. They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigeous) where they may be picked by hand. Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma.

Truffle fruiting body of a subterranean fungus

A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber. In addition to Tuber, many other genera of fungi are classified as truffles including Geopora, Peziza, Choiromyces, Leucangium, and over a hundred others. These genera belong to the class Pezizomycetes and the Pezizales order. There are several truffle-like basidiomycetes excluded from Pezizales including Rhizopogon and Glomus. Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi and are therefore usually found in close association with tree roots. Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi. These fungi have significant ecological roles in nutrient cycling and drought tolerance.

Fungiculture is the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi. By growing fungi, food, medicine, construction materials and other products can be attained. A mushroom farm is in the business of growing fungi.

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Chocolate truffle A type of chocolate confectionery, traditionally made with a chocolate ganache centre coated in chocolate

A chocolate truffle is a type of chocolate confectionery, traditionally made with a chocolate ganache centre coated in chocolate, cocoa powder or chopped toasted nuts, usually in a spherical, conical, or curved shape.

Tuber brumale, also known as Muscat truffle or Winter truffle, is a species of truffle native to Southern Europe. It is naturally present in the soils of many truffle orchards.

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Tuberaceae family of fungi

The Tuberaceae are a family of mycorrhizal fungi in the order Pezizales. It includes the genus Tuber, which includes the so-called "true" truffles. It was characterized by the Belgian botanist Barthélemy Charles Joseph du Mortier in 1822. A molecular study of ribosomal DNA by mycologist Kerry O'Donnell in 1997 found that a small clade now redefined as Helvellaceae is most closely related to the Tuberaceae.

False truffle

A false truffle or a hymenogastrale is any species of fungus that has underground fruiting bodies that produce basidiocarps resembling the true truffles of genus Tuber. While rodents such as squirrels eat a wide variety of false truffle species, many are considered toxic or otherwise inedible by humans and only a few are sought after as food.

<i>Tuber aestivum</i> species of fungus

The summer truffle or burgundy truffle is a species of truffle, found in almost all European countries.

<i>Tuber oregonense</i> species of fungus

Tuber oregonense, commonly known as the Oregon white truffle, is a species of edible truffle in the genus Tuber. Described as new to science in 2010, the North American species is found on the western coast of the United States, from northern California to southern British Columbia west of the Cascade Range. A mycorrhizal fungus, it grows in a symbiotic association with Douglas fir. It overlaps in distribution with the closely related T. gibbosum, but they have different growing seasons: T. oregonense typically appears from October through March, while T. gibbosum grows from January to June. The fruit bodies of the fungus are roughly spherical to irregular in shape, and resemble small potatoes up to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Inside the truffle is the gleba, which is initially white before it becomes a marbled tan color. The large, often thick-walled, and strongly ornamented spores are produced in large spherical asci. The truffle is highly prized for its taste and aroma. Some individuals have claimed success in cultivating the truffles in Christmas tree farms.

<i>Tuber gibbosum</i> species of fungus

Tuber gibbosum is a species of truffle in the genus Tuber. It is found in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, where it grows in an ectomycorrhizal association with Douglas-fir. It is commercially collected between as early as October and into March.

<i>Tuber</i> (fungus) genus of fungi

Tuber is a genus in the Tuberaceae family of fungi. It includes several species of truffles that are highly valued as delicacies. According to a standard reference text, the widespread genus contains 86 species.

<i>Kalapuya brunnea</i> species of fungus

Kalapuya brunnea is a species of truffle in the monotypic fungal genus Kalapuya. The truffle occurs only in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, in western Oregon and northern California. Known locally as the Oregon brown truffle, it was formerly thought to be an undescribed species of Leucangium until molecular analysis demonstrated that it was distinct from that genus. The truffle is reddish brown with a rough and warty outer skin, while the interior spore-producing gleba is initially whitish before developing greyish-brown mottling as it matures. Mature truffles have an odor resembling garlicky cheese, similar to mature Camembert. The species has been harvested for culinary purposes in Oregon.

Tuber anniae is a species of truffle in the genus Tuber. The truffle is purported to be uncommon, but is primarily found in the United States Pacific Northwest. Recently the fruiting of closely related taxa have been found in the Baltic Rim countries, primarily forests dominated by Scots pine in eastern Finland.

<i>Tuber melanosporum</i> species of fungus

Tuber melanosporum, called the black truffle,Périgord truffle or French black truffle, is a species of truffle native to Southern Europe. It is one of the most expensive edible mushrooms in the world.

James Martin Trappe is a mycologist and expert in the field of North American truffle species. He has authored or co-authored 450 scientific papers and written three books on the subject. MycoBank lists him as either author or co-author of 401 individual species, and over the course of his career he has helped guide research on mycorrhizal fungi, and reshaped truffle taxonomy: establishing a new order, two new families, and 40 individual genera.

<i>Tolypocladium ophioglossoides</i> species of fungus

Tolypocladium ophioglossoides, also known by two of its better known synonyms Elaphocordyceps ophioglossoides and Cordyceps ophioglossoides and commonly known as the goldenthread cordyceps, is a species of fungus in the family Ophiocordycipitaceae. It is parasitic on fruit bodies of the truffle-like Elaphomyces. The specific epithet ophioglossoides, derived from Ancient Greek, means "like a snake's tongue". The species is inedible.

A tuber is a type of modified plant structure that is enlarged to store nutrients.