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Tryphon or Trypho (Greek : Τρύφων, gen.: Τρύφωνος; c. 60 BC – 10 BC) was a Greek grammarian who lived and worked in Alexandria. He was a contemporary of Didymus Chalcenterus.


He wrote several specialized works on aspects of language and grammar, from which only a handful of fragments now survive. These included treatises on word-types, dialects, accentuation, pronunciation, and orthography, as well as a grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική, Tékhne grammatiké) and a dictionary. The two extant works that bear his name, On Meters and On Tropes, may or may not be by him. He had a pupil named Abron. [1]

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This article concerns the period 139 BC – 130 BC.

Diodotus Tryphon

Diodotus Tryphon, nicknamed "The Magnificent" was a Greek king of the Seleucid Empire. Initially an official under King Alexander I Balas, he led a revolt against Alexander's successor Demetrius II Nicator in 144 BC. He rapidly gained control of most of Syria and the Levant. At first he acted as regent and tutor for Alexander's infant son Antiochus VI Dionysus, but after the death of his charge in 142/141 BC, Diodotus declared himself king. He took the royal name Tryphon Autocrator and distanced himself from the Seleucid dynasty. For a period between 139 and 138, he was the sole ruler of the Seleucid empire. However, in 138 BC Demetrius II's brother Antiochus VII Sidetes invaded Syria and brought his rule to an end.

Athenaeus of Naucratis was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. The Suda says only that he lived in the times of Marcus Aurelius, but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus, who died in 192, shows that he survived that emperor. He was a contemporary of Adrantus.

Crates of Mallus was a Greek grammarian and Stoic philosopher, leader of the literary school and head of the library of Pergamum. He was described as the Crates from Mallus to distinguish him from other philosophers by the same name. His chief work was a critical and exegetical commentary on Homer. He is also famous for constructing the earliest known globe of the Earth.

Acusilaus, Acusilas, or Akousilaos of Argos, son of Cabas or Scabras, was a Greek logographer and mythographer who lived in the latter half of the 6th century BC but whose work survives only in fragments and summaries of individual points. He is one of the authors whose fragments were collected in Felix Jacoby's Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker.

William Smith (lexicographer) English lexicographer, 1813–1893

Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He became known for his advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.

Aquillia gens Ancient Roman family

The gens Aquillia or Aquilia was a plebeian family of great antiquity at ancient Rome. Two of the Aquillii are mentioned among the Roman nobles who conspired to bring back the Tarquins, and a member of the house, Gaius Aquillius Tuscus, was consul in 487 BC.

Cardia or Kardia, anciently the chief town of the Thracian Chersonese, was situated at the head of the Gulf of Melas. It was originally a colony of the Milesians and Clazomenians; but subsequently, in the time of Miltiades, the place also received Athenian colonists, as proved by Miltiades tyranny. But this didn't make Cardia necessarily always pro-Athenian: when in 357 BC Athens took control of the Chersonese, the latter, under the rule of a Thracian prince, was the only city to remain neutral; but the decisive year was 352 BC when the city concluded a treaty of amity with king Philip II of Macedonia. A great crisis exploded when Diopeithes, an Athenian mercenary captain, had in 343 BC brought Attic settlers to the town; and since Cardia was unwilling to receive them, Philip immediately sent help to the town. The king proposed to settle the dispute between the two cities by arbitration, but Athens refused. Demosthenes, the famous Greek patriot and orator, spoke on this very matter to the Athenian Senate in 341 BC his "Oration On The State Of The Chersonesus":

Our present concernment is about the affairs of the Chersonesus, and Philip's expedition into Thrace...but most of our orators insist upon the actions and designs of Diopithes...which, if one moment neglected, the loss may be irreparable; here our attention is instantly demanded...shall Philip be left at full liberty to pursue all his other designs, provided he keeps from Attica; and shall not Diopithes be permitted to assist the Thracians? And if he does, shall we accuse him of involving us in a war?...none of you can be weak enough to imagine that Philip's desires are centered in those paltry villages of Thrace...and has no designs on the ports...arsenals...navies...silver mines, and all the other revenues of Athens; but that he will leave them for you to enjoy...? Impossible! No; these and all his expeditions are really intended to facilitate the conquest of Athens....let us shake off our extravagant and dangerous supineness; let us supply the necessary expenses; let us call on our that, as he hath his force constantly prepared to injure and enslave the Greeks, yours too may be ever ready to protect and assist them.

Ptolemy, king of Epirus c. 237 BC – 234 ВС, was the second son of Alexander II, king of Epirus, and Olympias, grandson of the great Pyrrhus and brother of Phthia of Macedon. He was named in honour of his late uncle Ptolemy. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his elder brother, Pyrrhus II of Epirus, but reigned only a very short time, having set out on a military expedition, during the course of which he fell sick and died or, according to Polyaenus, he was treasonably assassinated. The date of his reign cannot be fixed with certainty, but as he was a contemporary of Demetrius II, king of Macedonia, it may be placed between 239 and 229 BC. He was succeeded by his niece Deidamia.

Philon, Athenian architect of the 4th century BC, is known as the planner of two important works: the portico of twelve Doric columns to the great Hall of the Mysteries at Eleusis and, under the administration of Lycurgus, an arsenal at Athens. Of the last we have exact knowledge from an inscription. E. A. Gardner observes that it "is perhaps known to us more in detail than any other lost monument of antiquity." It was to hold the rigging of the galleys; and was so contrived that all its contents were visible from a central hall, and so liable to the inspection of the Athenian democracy. He is known to have written books on the Athenian arsenal and on the proportions of temple buildings, but these are now lost.

Lycurgus was a logographer in Ancient Greece. He was one of the ten Attic orators included in the "Alexandrian Canon" compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace in the third century BC.

Abrocomas 4th-century BC Iranian satrap

Abrocomas was satrap of Syria for the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. He may also have been satrap of Paphlagonia, with its capital at Sinope, according to the reading of some of the coinage of Sinope: the Aramaic reading "ˈbrkmw" has been identified as the name rendered in Greek as "Abrocomas", but this is not universally accepted.

Abron or Habron was the name of a number of people in classical Greek history:

Ptolichus is a name attributed to two individuals from Classical antiquity:

The gens Aebutia was an ancient Roman family that was prominent during the early Republic. The gens was originally patrician, but also had plebeian branches. The first member to obtain the consulship was Titus Aebutius Helva, consul in 499 BC.

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Pyrrhus II was the son of Olympias II and Alexander II of Epirus. He was a brother of Ptolemy and Phthia of Macedon. He ruled as king of Epirus from 242 BC to 237 BC. He had two daughters: Deidamia II who was the last ruler of the Aeacid Dynasty and Nereis who married Gelon of Syracuse.

Caninia gens Ancient Roman family

The gens Caninia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome during the later Republic. The first member of the gens who obtained any of the curule offices was Gaius Caninius Rebilus, praetor in 171 BC; but the first Caninius who was consul was his namesake, Gaius Caninius Rebilus, in 45 BC.

Amentes was an ancient Greek surgeon, mentioned by Galen as the inventor of some ingenious bandages. Some fragments of the works of a surgeon named Amynias still exist in the manuscript "Collection of Surgical Writers" by Nicetas, and one extract is preserved by Oribasius in the fourth volume of Angelo Mai's collection Classici Auctores e Vaticanis Codicibus. His date is unknown, except that he must have lived in or before the 2nd century AD. He may perhaps be the same person who is said by the Scholiast on Theocritus to have been put to death by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, around 264 BC, for plotting against his life.

Gregory of Corinth, born George Pardos, was a Byzantine Greek writer, grammarian and clergyman who served as the metropolitan of Corinth from 1092.



  1. Smith, William (1867), "Abron", in Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology , 1, Boston, MA, p. 3