Typhoon Lekima (2019)

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Typhoon Lekima (Hanna)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Lekima 2019-08-08 0232Z.jpg
Typhoon Lekima at peak intensity on August 8
FormedAugust 2, 2019 (2019-08-02)
DissipatedAugust 14, 2019 (2019-08-14)
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained:240 km/h (150 mph)
Lowest pressure920 hPa (mbar); 27.17 inHg
Fatalities89 total
Damage$7.6 billion (2019 USD)
Areas affected Caroline Islands, East China, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan
Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Lekima, known in the Philippines as the Typhoon Hanna, was the second-costliest typhoon in Chinese history, only behind Fitow in 2013. [1] The ninth named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Lekima originated from a tropical depression that formed east of the Philippines on July 30. It gradually organized, became a tropical storm and was named on August 4. Lekima intensified under favourable environmental conditions and peaked as a Category 4–equivalent super typhoon. However, an eyewall replacement cycle caused the typhoon to weaken before it made landfall in Zhejiang late on August 9, as a Category 2–equivalent typhoon. Lekima weakened subsequently while moving across the East China, and made its second landfall in Shandong on August 11.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Typhoon tropical cyclone that forms in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year. A hurricane is a gale-force tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean.

Typhoon Fitow Pacific typhoon in 2013

Typhoon Fitow, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Quedan, was the strongest typhoon to make landfall in Mainland China during October since 1949. The 21st named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Fitow developed on September 29 to the east of the Philippines. It initially tracked north-northwestward, gradually intensifying into a tropical storm and later to typhoon status, or with winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). Fitow later turned more to the west-northwest due to an intensifying ridge to the east, bringing the typhoon over the Ryukyu Islands with peak winds of 140 km/h (85 mph) on October 5. The next day, the typhoon struck China at Fuding in Fujian province. Fitow quickly weakened over land, dissipating on October 7.

Contents

Lekima's precursor enhanced the southwestern monsoon in the Philippines, which brought heavy rain to the country. The rains caused three boats to sink and 31 people died in this accident. Lekima brought catastrophic damage in mainland China, with a death toll of 89 people and more than CN¥53.7 billion (US$7.6 billion) in damages. The system also caused minor damage in Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan.

Mainland China geopolitical area under the jurisdiction of the Peoples Republic of China excluding Special Administrative Regions

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland.

Renminbi official currency of the Peoples Republic of China

The renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China. The yuan is the basic unit of the renminbi, but is also used to refer to the Chinese currency generally, especially in international contexts where "Chinese yuan" is widely used to refer to the renminbi. The distinction between renminbi and yuan is that renminbi is the name of the currency and yuan refers to its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao, and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen. The renminbi is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of China.

United States dollar Currency of the United States of America

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Lekima 2019 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 2, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began to monitor a tropical depression which developed over the Philippine Sea. [2] The system slowly developed while moving northward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the system and gave the identifier 10W early on August 4. [3] The JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm and assigned the name Lekima at 06:00 a.m. UTC that day. [4] The JTWC followed suit later that day. Though Lekima was affected by moderate wind shear, warm waters of 31 °C (88 °F) and good outflow channel allowed Lekima to slowly intensify, and Lekima became almost stationary due to the absence of steering current. [5]

Japan Meteorological Agency meteorological service of Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Philippine Sea A marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines

The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 5 million square kilometres. The Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the sea, which forms a portion of the western North Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by the Philippine archipelago on the southwest; Halmahera, Morotai, Palau, Yap, and Ulithi on the southeast; the Marianas, including Guam, Saipan, and Tinian, on the east; the Bonin and Iwo Jima on the northeast; the Japanese islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyūshū on the north; the Ryukyu Islands on the northwest; and Taiwan in the west.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

On August 6, Lekima steered by a subtropical ridge to the northeast and accelerated to the northwest, [6] and the JMA upgraded Lekima to a severe tropical storm. Later that day, both JMA and JTWC upgraded Lekima to a typhoon, after the system developed a central dense overcast. [7] As Lekima continued to move northwestward, the system moved into an area of low wind shear, and it started a process of rapid intensification on August 7. The eye became evident on satellite imagery. [8] On August 8, the JTWC upgraded Lekima to a super typhoon, and stated that the system had acquired some of the annular characteristics. [9] Later that day, the JMA stated that Lekima attained maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (121 mph). [10] At the same time, Lekima passed between Miyako-jima and Tarama-jima. [11]

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem for strong tropical storms and with systems of minimal hurricane strength as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

Rapid intensification

Rapid intensification is a meteorological condition that occurs when a tropical cyclone intensifies dramatically in a short period of time. The United States National Hurricane Center defines rapid intensification as an increase in the maximum sustained winds of a tropical cyclone of at least 30 knots in a 24-hour period.

Eye (cyclone) region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 kilometres (19–40 mi) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

Shortly thereafter, Lekima began an eyewall replacement cycle. The typhoon developed a concentric eyewall, as seen from the radar. [12] [13] This cycle also caused the motion of Lekima slightly veered to the north, [14] and the JTWC downgraded Lekima back to typhoon late on August 8. [15] Environmental conditions in East China Sea became less favourable, causing Lekima to slowly weaken while approaching East China. At 1:45 a.m. China Standard Time (UTC+08:00) August 10, Lekima made landfall in Wenling, Zhejiang with two-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). [16] Lekima quickly weakened and turned to the north, along the western side of the subtropical ridge. [17] Lekima dropped below typhoon intensity early on August 10, and weakened further to a tropical storm later that day. Lekima emerged into the Yellow Sea early on August 11, [18] and made second landfall in Xihai'an, Qingdao, Shandong at 8:50 p.m. CST, with two-minute sustained winds of 85 km/h (53 mph). [19] The JTWC issued its final warning to the system around that time. [20] Lekima meandered over the Shandong Peninsula and Bohai Sea throughout August 12, and the JMA downgraded it to a tropical depression later that day. [21]

Eyewall replacement cycle

Eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes. When tropical cyclones reach this intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small, some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—an outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are in a cyclone's eyewall, the tropical cyclone usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm may re-intensify.

East China Sea A marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean between the south of Korea, the south of Kyushu, Japan, the Ryukyu islands and mainland China

The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China. The East China Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). To the east lies the Japanese island of Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, to the south lies the South China Sea, and to the west lies the Asian continent. The sea connects with the Sea of Japan through the Korea Strait and opens to the north into the Yellow Sea. The states which border the sea include Japan, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China.

The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00, despite China spanning five geographical time zones. The official national standard time is called Beijing Time domestically and China Standard Time (CST) internationally. Daylight saving time has not been observed since 1991.

Preparations and impact

Philippines

Flooding in Calumpit, Bulacan. 4009Typhoons Krosa Lekima & monsoon tidal flooding in Calumpit, Bulacan 62.jpg
Flooding in Calumpit, Bulacan.

As Lekima moved northwestward and approached the northern part of the Philippines, PAGASA issued PSWS#1 to Batanes and the Babuyan Islands late on August 6. [22] These warnings were lifted after Lekima left the Philippine Area of Responsibility. [23]

PAGASA National Meteorological and Hydrological Services agency of the Republic of the Philippines

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration is the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) agency of the Republic of the Philippines mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and to insure the safety, well-being and economic security of all the people, and for the promotion of national progress by undertaking scientific and technological services in meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences. Created on December 8, 1972 by reorganizing the Weather Bureau, PAGASA now serves as one of the Scientific and Technological Services Institutes of the Department of Science and Technology.

Batanes Province in Cagayan Valley, Philippines

Batanes is an archipelagic province in the Philippines situated in the Cagayan Valley region. It is the northernmost province in the country, and also the smallest, both in population and land area. Its capital is Basco located on the island of Batan.

Babuyan Islands island group in the Philippines

The Babuyan Islands, also known as the Babuyan Group of Islands, is an archipelago in the Philippines, located in the Luzon Strait north of the main island of Luzon and south of Taiwan via Bashi Channel to Luzon Strait. The archipelago consists of five major islands and their surrounding smaller islands. These main islands are, counterclockwise starting from northeast, Babuyan, Calayan, Dalupiri, Fuga, and Camiguin. The Babuyan Islands are separated from Luzon by the Babuyan Channel, and from the province of Batanes to the north by the Balintang Channel.

Though Lekima, locally known as "Hanna", did not directly affect the Philippines, it enhanced the southwest monsoon which caused heavy rain to the nation. Three boats sank in Guimaras Strait; 31 people died and three were left missing. [24] Heavy rains also caused flooding in Metro Manila. [25] Classes of numerous cities were suspended on August 5. [26] A motorboat carrying 10 passengers capsized off the coast of Mactan Island in the early morning of August 7. [27] To the south, waves from Lekima displaced more than 1,300 people in Davao City. [28] Agricultural damage in Central Luzon was at 80.5 million (US$1.55 million). [29]

Ryukyu Islands

As Lekima approached the southwestern Ryukyu Islands, Ishigaki-jima and Miyako-jima received a storm warning. The JMA urged the residents on these islands to beware of high waves, heavy rain, and sudden gusts. [30] Gusts in Miyako-jima reached 168 km/h (104 mph), while gusts in Shimojishima Airport and Iriomote-jima reached 156 km/h (97 mph) and 125 km/h (78 mph) respectively. [31] Six people were injured during the storm, and thousands of families suffered from power outages. [32] Hundreds of flights and passenger ship trips were cancelled on August 7–9, mainly in Miyako-jima and Ishigaki-jima, affecting thousands of passengers. [33] [34] Agricultural damage across the island chain was ¥347 million (US$3.29 million). [35]

Taiwan

Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau (CWB) issued a sea warning on August 7. [36] As Lekima continued to approach the island, the CWB issued a land warning to the northern part of Taiwan early on the next day, locally. [37] The CWB lifted the land warning late on August 9, [38] and lifted the sea warning early on the next day, after Lekima made landfall in East China. [39] On late August 8, school and work were cancelled for the next day in eight municipalities and counties in the northern part of Taiwan and in the Matsu Islands. [40] Hundreds of flights and ships were cancelled and delayed. [41]

Throughout Taiwan, Lekima killed two people and injured 15 others. More than 80,000 families suffered power outages. [41] On August 8–9, Wufeng Township recorded a rainfall total of 385 mm (15.2 in), while rainfall in Taichung amounted to 355.5 mm (14.00 in). [42] Lekima's downdraft affected Kinmen on August 9, where a farmland recorded temperature of 39.9 °C (103.8 °F), setting the national record for the second highest temperature. Jinfeng Township also recorded a temperature of 36.8 °C (98.2 °F). [43] Institutional damage of Lekima, along with a magnitude 6.0 earthquake reached NT$5.24 million (US$167,000). [44]

Mainland China

Typhoon Lekima uprooted a tree in Xianju County, Zhejiang. Typhoon Lekima uprooted the tree in Xianju County.jpg
Typhoon Lekima uprooted a tree in Xianju County, Zhejiang.

Striking East China as a super typhoon, according to China Meteorological Administration, Lekima wrought major damage across numerous provinces. In all, the typhoon killed 56 people and left 14 others missing. Damage nationwide reached CN¥53.72 billion (US$7.6 billion). [45] [46] Zhejiang was the worst hit province; 39 people died in the province, and economic loss reached CN¥24.22 billion (US$3.43 billion). [47] Most of those killed died because of landslides in Yongjia County, and the landslides blocked a river. Water levels rose 10 m (33 ft) in ten minutes, and many residents could not evacuate in time. [48] Wenling recorded peak wind gusts of 221 km/h (137 mph), while daily rainfall in Beilun District amounted to 291 mm (11.5 in). [1]

Lekima also brought significant effects in Shandong, where 5 people were killed and the damage statewide amounted to CN¥1.475 billion (US$209 million). [49] Because Lekima looped around Shandong for days, it brought heavy rainfall in the province. Daily rainfall in Linqu County reached 386.7 mm (15.22 in). [1]

Malaysia

The tail front of Lekima stretched south to Malaysia and struck the northern states of the Malay Peninsula on August 9, causing widespread damage and injuring 10 people in the states of Kedah, Penang and Perlis. The storm also caused damage to 329 schools, according to the Malaysian Ministry of Education. Wind speeds in some areas were recorded at 100 km/h (62 mph). [50] [51]

See also

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Tropical Storm Rumbia was a rather weak but very destructive tropical cyclone that caused widespread and disastrous flooding in East China in August 2018. The twenty-second officially recognized tropical cyclone of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Rumbia developed from an area of low pressure that developed southeast of the Ryukyu Islands on August 13. Favorable environmental conditions supported development of the low into a tropical depression by August 15. At 12:00 UTC that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rumbia, which refers to the Sago Palm. Initially moving northward, the cyclone turned westward in response to a building ridge to its northeast while slowly strengthening, reaching its peak intensity with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) on August 16. At 20:05 UTC that day, the storm made landfall in Shanghai at peak intensity, maintaining its strength as it moved inland due to ample environmental moisture. However, Rumbia began to weaken as it continued further inland, degenerating into a tropical depression on August 17 shortly before becoming extratropical over central China. The extratropical remnants of Rumbia accelerated northeastward into the Russian Far East, where they dissipated on August 23.

Typhoon Trami Pacific typhoon in 2018

Typhoon Trami, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Paeng, was the second typhoon to affect Japan within a month. The twenty-fourth tropical storm and tenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Trami developed from a low-pressure area southeast of Guam on September 20. It intensified into a tropical storm on the next day, and intensified into a typhoon on September 22. Trami steadily intensified and reached its peak intensity late on September 24. On the following day, Trami slowed down and drifting slowly northward. It began to weaken due to upwelling. Trami accelerated and turned northeastward on September 29, before it struck Japan on the next day, and became extratropical on October 1. The extratropical remnants persisted for days until dissipated completely on October 8.

Typhoon Kong-rey (2018) Pacific typhoon in 2018

Typhoon Kong-rey, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Queenie, was a large and powerful typhoon that was tied with Typhoon Yutu as the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The twenty-fifth tropical storm and eleventh typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Kong-rey originated from a tropical disturbance in the open Pacific. For a couple days, it went westward, organizing into a tropical depression on September 27. Then it intensified into a powerful Category 5 super typhoon early on October 2. Kong-rey underwent an eyewall replacement cycle after its peak intensity, causing it to weaken into a Category 3 typhoon under unfavorable conditions. Kong-rey then struck South Korea on October 6 as a tropical storm. Kong-rey transitioned into a extratropical cyclone later that day while impacting Japan.

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