The series logo
|Creator(s)|| Andrew C. Greenberg |
|First release|| Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord |
|Latest release||Wizrogue: Labyrinth of Wizardry|
February 24, 2017
|Spin-offs|| Tale of the Forsaken Land |
Nemesis: The Wizardry Adventure
Wizardry: Labyrinth of Lost Souls
Wizardry is a series of role-playing video games, developed by Sir-Tech, which were highly influential in the evolution of modern role-playing video games.The original Wizardry was a significant influence on early console role-playing games such as Final Fantasy and Dragon Quest . Originally made for the Apple II, the games were later ported to other platforms. The last game in the original series by Sir-Tech was Wizardry 8 , released in 2001. There have since been various spin-off titles released only in Japan.
A role-playing video game is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character immersed in some well-defined world. Many role-playing video games have origins in tabletop role-playing games and use much of the same terminology, settings and game mechanics. Other major similarities with pen-and-paper games include developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion. The electronic medium removes the necessity for a gamemaster and increases combat resolution speed. RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences.
Sir-Tech Software, Inc. was a United States and Canada-based video game developer and publisher.
Final Fantasy is a Japanese science fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix. The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs/JRPGs). The first game in the series was released in 1987, with 14 other main-numbered entries being released since then. The franchise has since branched into other video game genres such as tactical role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer online role-playing, racing, third-person shooter, fighting, and rhythm, as well as branching into other media, including CGI films, anime, manga, and novels.
Wizardry began as a simple dungeon crawl by Andrew C. Greenberg and Robert Woodhead. It was written when they were students at Cornell University and published by Sir-Tech. The game was influenced by earlier games from the PLATO system, most notably Oubliette.The earliest installments of Wizardry were very successful, as they were the first graphically-rich incarnations of Dungeons & Dragons -type gameplay for home computers. The release of the first version coincided with the height of Dungeons & Dragons' popularity in North America.
A dungeon crawl is a type of scenario in fantasy role-playing games in which heroes navigate a labyrinthine environment, battling various monsters, avoiding traps, solving puzzles, and looting any treasure they may find. Because of its simplicity, a dungeon crawl can be easier for a gamemaster to run than more complex adventures, and the "hack and slash" style of play is appreciated by players who focus on action and combat. However dungeon crawls often lack meaningful plot or logical consistency.
Andrew Clifford Greenberg co-created Wizardry with Robert Woodhead, which was one of the first role-playing video games for a personal computer. He was also involved with the production of the game Q-Bert and several of the later Wizardry games in the 1980s. He is a graduate of Cornell University, where he did his first work on role-playing video games. He also is a proficient tuba player.
Robert J. Woodhead is an entrepreneur, software engineer and former game programmer. He claims that a common thread in his career is "doing weird things with computers".
The first five games in the series were written in Apple Pascal, an implementation of UCSD Pascal. They were ported to many different platforms by writing UCSD Pascal implementations for the target machines (Mac II cross-development). David W. Bradley took over the series after the fourth installment, adding a new level of plot and complexity. In 1998, the rights were transferred to 1259190 Ontario Inc., and in 2006 to Aeria IPM. In 2008, Aeria IPM merged with Gamepot, the developer of Wizardry Online.
UCSD Pascal is a Pascal programming language system that runs on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system. UCSD Pascal was first released in 1978. It was developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).
David W. Bradley is a video game designer and programmer, most notable for the role-playing video games Wizardry V: Heart of the Maelstrom, VI: Bane of the Cosmic Forge, VII: Crusaders of the Dark Savant, Wizards & Warriors, and Dungeon Lords.
Gamepot, Inc., was one of Japan's leading game publishers of massively multiplayer online games and mobile games.
|1981||1: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord|
|1982||2: The Knight of Diamonds|
|1983||3: Legacy of Llylgamyn|
|1987||4: The Return of Werdna|
|1988||5: Heart of the Maelstrom|
|1990||6: Bane of the Cosmic Forge|
|1992||7: Crusaders of the Dark Savant|
|1996||Nemesis: The Wizardry Adventure|
The original Wizardry series is composed of eight different titles. All of the titles were first released in North America, and then ported to Japanese computers. Some of the titles were also officially released in Europe. The first three games are a trilogy, with similar settings, plots, and gameplay mechanics. A second trilogy is formed by installments 6 through 8 – Bane of the Cosmic Forge, Crusaders of the Dark Savant and Wizardry 8 – with settings and gameplay mechanics that differed greatly from the first trilogy. The fourth game, The Return of Werdna, was a significant departure from the rest of the series. In it, the player controls Werdna ("Andrew," one of the game's developers, spelled backwards), the evil wizard slain in the first game, and summons groups of monsters to aid him as he fights his way through the prison in which he had been held captive. Rather than monsters, the player faced typical adventuring parties, some of which were pulled from actual user disks sent to Sir-Tech for recovery. Further, the player had only a limited number of keystrokes to use to complete the game.
In Japan, the Wizardry series was translated by ASCII Entertainment, and became very influential during the 1980s, even as its popularity at home declined. [ sic ]" but its meaning was misinterpreted because Cuisinart food processors were virtually unknown in Japan. However, this misconception appealed to early computer gamers who were looking for something different and made the Wizardry series popular. Conversely, the fourth game, The Return of Werdna, was poorly received, as, lacking the knowledge of subcultures necessary to solving the game, Japanese players had no chance of figuring out some puzzles.When first introduced, the games suffered from the culture barrier compounded by low-quality translation. This meant that the game was taken seriously by players who overlooked the in-game jokes and parodies. For example, Blade Cusinart was introduced in early games as "a legendary sword made by the famous blacksmith, Cusinart
The Latin adverb sic inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling. It also applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be likely interpreted as an error of transcription.
Cuisinart is an American home appliance brand owned by Conair Corporation. The company was started in 1971 by Carl Sontheimer to bring an electric food processor to the US market. The "Food Processor" was the first model, introduced at a food show in Chicago in 1973. The name "Cuisinart" became synonymous with "food processor." It is also a portmanteau of "cuisine" and "art."
A food processor is a kitchen appliance used to facilitate repetitive tasks in the preparation of food. Today, the term almost always refers to an electric-motor-driven appliance, although there are some manual devices also referred to as "food processors".
The eight main titles in the series are:
|Title||Original release date|
|Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord||November 1985 (FM-7)||September 1981 (Apple II)||1983 (Apple II)|
|Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds||December 1986 (FM-7)||1982 (Apple II)||N/A|
|Wizardry III: Legacy of Llylgamyn||1987 (FM-7)||1983 (Apple II)||N/A|
|Wizardry IV: The Return of Werdna||December 1988 (PC-88)||1987 (Apple II)||N/A|
|Wizardry V: Heart of the Maelstrom||June 8, 1990 (PC-98)||1988 (Apple II)||N/A|
|Wizardry VI: Bane of the Cosmic Forge||December 1991 (FM Towns)||1990 (Amiga, MS-DOS)||1991 (Amiga, MS-DOS)|
|Wizardry VII: Crusaders of the Dark Savant||September 1994 (FM Towns)||October 1992 (MS-DOS)||1992 (MS-DOS)|
|Wizardry 8||December 20, 2001 (PC)||November 14, 2001 (PC)||2001 (PC)|
In 1996, the series received the first (and, so far, only) spin-off developed in North America, titled Wizardry Nemesis. It is played as a solo adventure: one character only, with no supporting party or monsters. All players use the same character, without the ability to choose class or attributes. In addition, the game contains only 16 spells, compared to 50 in the first four adventures, and more in the subsequent ones. It is also the first Wizardry title where the player saw enemies in advance and thus could try to avoid them.
The popularity of Wizardry in Japan inspired several original sequels, spinoffs, and ports, with the series long outliving the American original.As of 2017, thirty-nine different spin-offs were released in Japan, with four of them also making their way to North America: Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land , Wizardry: Labyrinth of Lost Souls , Wizardry Online and Wizrogue: Labyrinth of Wizardry. The latest is also the last original game produced in the series, released in Japan in 2014, and officially released in English worldwide in 2017.
Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land is a 2001 PlayStation 2 role-playing video game and a spin-off of the Wizardry series, published by Atlus. It was released in Japan under the title Busin: Wizardry Alternative.
Wizardry: Labyrinth of Lost Souls is a video game developed by Acquire and published by Xseed Games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita and iOS. The game is a localized version of the Japanese game Wizardry: Torawareshi Tamashii no Meikyū originally released in December 2009. Although originally developed for the Apple II and released in the U.S. in 1981, the Wizardry series has been kept alive in Japan by various developers. The dungeon-crawling role-playing game franchise hasn't been seen in the West since 2001's duo of Wizardry 8 for Microsoft Windows and Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land for the PlayStation 2.
Wizardry Online was a free-to-play MMORPG developed by Gamepot, Inc, based on the classic Wizardry computer games originally created by Sir-Tech.
|Title||Original release date|
|Wizardry Gaiden I: Joō no Junan||October 1, 1991 (Game Boy)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Gaiden II: Kodai Kōtei no Noroi||December 26, 1992 (Game Boy)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Gaiden III: Yami no Seiten||September 25, 1993 (Game Boy)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Gaiden IV: Taima no Kodō||September 20, 1996 (Super Famicom)||N/A||N/A|
|Nemesis: The Wizardry Adventure||January 22, 1998 (Sega Saturn)||September 30, 1996 (MS-DOS)||1996 (MS-DOS)|
|Wizardry Empire||October 29, 1999 (Game Boy Color)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Dimguil||April 20, 2000 (PlayStation)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Empire: Fukkatsu no Tsue||December 22, 2000 (Game Boy Color)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Empire: Inishie no Ōjo||December 28, 2000 (PlayStation, PC)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Chronicle||March 23, 2001 (PC)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land||November 15, 2001 (PlayStation 2)||December 19, 2001 (PlayStation 2)||October 4, 2002 (PlayStation 2)|
|Wizardry Summoner||December 21, 2001 (Game Boy Advance)||N/A||N/A|
|Monthly Wizardry: Shōnen-Ō no Yūutsu||March 1, 2002 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Empire II: Ōjo no Isan||October 17, 2002 (PlayStation)||N/A||N/A|
|Monthly Wizardry: Andēru no Mori no Shin'nyū-sha||October 15, 2003 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Busin 0: Wizardry Alternative Neo||November 13, 2003 (PlayStation 2)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 1-1: Baitokku Īhai no Hokora||December 1, 2003 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Empire III: Haō no Keifu||December 25, 2003 (PlayStation 2)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 1-2: Nazo no Chika Iseki||February 2, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 1-3: Fushi Ryū no Shinden||March 1, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Traditional I: Jū-ni Shinshō||May 12, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 2-1: Īdisu no Tō||June 7, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Traditional II: Gekkō no Saji||June 16, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 2-2: Shin'en no Rīdo Seresuto-gō||July 20, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|DoCoMo Wizardry 2-3: Īdisu no Tō Jōsō-bu||September 13, 2004 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Xth: Academy of Frontier - Zensen no Gakufu||February 24, 2005 (PlayStation 2)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Gaiden: Sentō no Kangoku: Prisoners of the Battles||March 25, 2005 (PC)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Asterisk: Hiiro no Fūin||December 29, 2005 (Nintendo DS)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Xth 2: Unlimited Students - Mugen no Gakuto||March 23, 2006 (PlayStation 2)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Gaiden: Itsutsu no Shiren - Five Ordeals||June 8, 2006 (PC)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry: Seimei no Kusabi||November 19, 2009 (Nintendo DS)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry: Labyrinth of Lost Souls||December 9, 2009 (PlayStation 3)||May 16, 2011 (PlayStation 3)||December 7, 2011 (PlayStation 3)|
|Wizardry Online Mobile||May 24, 2010 (Mobile phone)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry: Bōkyaku no Isan||July 29, 2010 (Nintendo DS)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry: Torawareshi Bōrei no Machi||January 27, 2011 (PlayStation 3)||N/A||N/A|
|Tōkyō Meikyū - Wizardry 0 -||August 24, 2011 (Mobile phones)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Online||October 14, 2011 (PC)||January 16, 2013 (PC)||January 16, 2013 (PC)|
|Wizardry: Senran no Matō||January 24, 2013 (iPhone)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizardry Schema||July 29, 2014 (iPhone)||N/A||N/A|
|Wizrogue: Labyrinth of Wizardry||December 22, 2014 (Android)||February 24, 2017 (PC)||February 24, 2017 (PC)|
The original Wizardry game was a success, selling 24,000 copies by June 1982, just nine months after its release according to Softalk‘s sales surveys.In the June 1983 issue of Electronic Games , Wizardry was described as "without a doubt, the most popular fantasy adventure game for the Apple II at the present time". While noting limitations such as the inability to divide the party, or the emphasis on combat over role-playing, the magazine stated that "no other game comes closer to providing the type of contest favored by most players of non-electronic role-playing games... one outstanding programming achievement, and an absolute 'must buy' for those fantasy gamers who own an Apple".
Electronic Games was the first dedicated video game magazine published in the United States and ran from October 15, 1981 to 1997 under different titles. It was co-founded by Bill Kunkel, Joyce Worley, and Arnie Katz, and is not to be confused with Electronic Gaming Monthly.
Spin-offs originally released in Japan received generally positive reviews in North America. Gamespot reviewed Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land in 2002 and awarded it a score of 8.5 out of 10.In 2011, Wizardry: Labyrinth of Lost Souls was also reviewed by Gamespot and received a score of 7.5 out of 10. In Japan, readers of Famitsu magazine considered the Famicom port of the original Wizardry I to be one of the 100 best games of all time. The series was ranked as the 60th top game (collectively) by Next Generation in 1996. They cited the "huge dungeons with elaborate quests and tons of differing enemies." Fans of the series included Robin Williams, Harry Anderson, and the Crown Prince of Bahrain; the latter even called Sir-Tech on the phone.
Wizardry established the command-driven battle system with a still image of the monster being fought. This system would be emulated in later games, such as The Bard's Tale, Dragon Quest , and Final Fantasy . The party-based combat in Wizardry also inspired Richard Garriott to include a similar party-based system in Ultima III: Exodus .
Wizardry was the first game to feature what would later be called prestige classes. Aside from the traditional classes of Fighter, Mage, Priest, Thief and Bard, players could take Bishop, Lord, Ninja and Samurai if they had the right attributes and alignment. In the case of Lord and Ninja, at least in the first episodes of the sequel, it was impossible to receive all the attributes needed when first rolling characters; this meant the player needed to gain levels to achieve those attributes and then cross classes, so they can be considered proper prestige classes. Wizardry VI allowed starting with any class if the player invested enough time during the random character attribute generation.
Wizardry inspired many clones and served as a template for role-playing video games. Some notable series that trace their look and feel to Wizardry include 1985's The Bard's Tale and the Might and Magic series. Wizardry is the major inspiration to the Nintendo DS title The Dark Spire .While the game follows its own story and maps, much of the game uses the same game play mechanics, even going so far as including a "classic" mode that removes all of the game's graphics, replacing them with a wireframe environment, 8-bit-style sprites for monsters and characters, and chiptune music. The game's publisher, Atlus, also published another Wizardry spin-off, Wizardry: Tale of the Forsaken Land .
While designing the popular Japanese role-playing game Dragon Quest , Yuji Horii drew inspiration from the Wizardry series, 1986's Mugen no Shinzou ( Heart of Phantasm ), and the Ultima series of games. Horii's obsession with Wizardry was manifested as an easter egg in one of his earlier games, The Portopia Serial Murder Case in 1983. In a dungeon-crawling portion of that adventure game, a note on the wall reads "MONSTER SURPRISED YOU." The English fan translation added a sidenote explaining "This is Yuji Horii wishing he could have made this game an RPG like Wizardry!"
Wizardry's legacy continued in Japan after the parent company ended, with titles such as Wizardry Gaiden,Wizardry Empire,Wizardry XTH, and Wizardry Renaissance being developed after the original games were released and generally keeping the same tropes, themes, and mechanics.
Notably Wizardry XTH: Academy of Frontier swapped the original's Gothic themes for a modern day military school setting, adding item crafting and party member compatibility to the Wizardry formula. Much like the original Wizardry, XTH spawned a direct storyline sequel, Wizardry XTH: Unlimited Students. The second XTH game was used as the basis for and shared code with Class of Heroes, which swapped the modern science fiction elements for a combination of High School, High Fantasy, and Anime aesthetics. Class of Heroes would go on to spawn several sequels and spinoffs itself.
Following the shutdown of Michaelsoft, the director of Wizardry XTH, Motoya Ataka took a group of programmers he called "Team Muramasa" that had worked on Empire and XTH and went on to found Experience Inc., creating a series of PC games with Wizardry XTH's mechanics called Generation Xth . These would later be ported to the PlayStation Vita, their ports localized as Operation Abyss and Operation Babel. Experience would go on to create several other DRPGs using Wizardry's mechanics as a starting point, including Students of the Round, Stranger of Sword City, and Demon Gaze.
Starfish, the development team behind Wizardry Empire, would later go on to create Elminage, a series of DRPGs that retained the original Gothic aesthetic of the western Wizardry games. Elminage was notable for using the expanded "kemonojin" races from Wizardry Asterisk, also by Starfish, as well as the summoner class from Wizardry: Summoner -- these included "Were-Beast," "Dragonnewt," "Fairy," and "Devilkin" as well as expanded classes such as "Brawler" (a hand to hand melee specialist), "Alchemist" (a combination crafting class and spellcaster), and "Summoner" (a spellcasting class that can tame and summon monsters from the dungeon). These "expanded" Japanese Wizardry mechanics would be reused in future Elminage games as well as notably Class of Heroes.
In 2009 several Japanese publishers and Development teams started a "Brand Revitalization plan," which they called "Wizardry Renaissance". After Sir-Tech, the original Wizardry creator in the US, was dissolved, several semi-official games were created in Japan of varying quality and thematic elements. "Wizardry Renaissance" aimed to "rebuild" the brand by agreeing to a certain "worldview" and quality standards to these semi-official Wizardry games.
Wizardry Renaissance titles include:
These titles were released from late 2009 to 2016, with the latest activity being Wizrogue being re-released as a more standard single-purchase RPG without any in app purchase elements in 2017.
The popularity of Wizardry in Japan also inspired various light novels, manga comics, Japanese pen-and-paper role-playing games, and an original video animation. A popular light novel series titled Sword Art Online also had a character who stated that his inspiration came from this game. Most have been released only in Japan.
Phantasy Star is a role-playing video game (RPG) developed by Sega and released for the Master System in 1987. One of the earliest Japanese RPGs for consoles, Phantasy Star tells the story of Alis on her journey to defeat the evil ruler of her star system, King Lassic, after her brother dies at his hands. She traverses between planets, gathering a party of fighters and collecting the items she needs to avenge her brother's death and return peace to the star system. The gameplay features traditional Japanese RPG elements including random encounters and experience points. All the characters have predefined personalities and abilities, a unique element compared to the customizable characters of other RPGs of the era.
Pool of Radiance is a role-playing video game developed and published by Strategic Simulations, Inc (SSI) in 1988. It was the first adaptation of TSR's Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D) fantasy role-playing game for home computers, becoming the first episode in a four-part series of D&D computer adventure games. The other games in the "Gold Box" series used the game engine pioneered in Pool of Radiance, as did later D&D titles such as the Neverwinter Nights online game. Pool of Radiance takes place in the Forgotten Realms fantasy setting, with the action centered in and around the port city of Phlan.
Dragon Quest, published as Dragon Warrior in North America until 2005, is a series of Japanese role-playing video games created by Yuji Horii and his studio Armor Project. The games are published by Square Enix, with localized versions of later installments for the Nintendo DS and 3DS being published by Nintendo outside of Japan. With its first game published in 1986, there are eleven main-series games, along with numerous spin-off games. In addition, there have been numerous manga, anime and novels published under the franchise, with nearly every game in the main series having a related adaptation.
An owlbear is a fictional creature originally created for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. An owlbear is depicted as a cross between a bear and an owl, which "hugs" like a bear and attacks with its beak. Inspired by a plastic toy made in Hong Kong, Gary Gygax created the owlbear and introduced the creature to the game in the 1975 Greyhawk supplement; the creature has since appeared in every subsequent edition of the game. Owlbears, or similar beasts, also appear in several other fantasy role-playing games, video games and other media.
Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei refers to two distinct role-playing video games based on a trilogy of science fantasy novels by Japanese author Aya Nishitani. One version was developed by Atlus and published by Namco in 1987 for the Famicom—Atlus would go on to create further games in the Megami Tensei franchise. A separate version for personal computers was co-developed by Atlus and Telenet Japan and published by Telenet Japan during the same year. An enhanced port for the Super Famicom by Opera House was released in 1995.
Action role-playing video games are a subgenre of role-playing video games. The games emphasize real-time combat where the player has direct control over the characters as opposed to turn or menu-based combat. These games often use action game combat systems similar to hack and slash or shooter games. Action role-playing games may also incorporate action-adventure games, which include a mission system and RPG mechanics, or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with real-time combat systems.
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord is the first game in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was developed by Andrew Greenberg and Robert Woodhead. In 1980, Norman Sirotek formed Sir-Tech Software, Inc. and launched a Beta version of the product at the 1980 Boston Computer Convention. The final version of the game was released in 1981.
The history of role-playing games begins with an earlier tradition of role-playing, which combined with the rulesets of fantasy wargames in the 1970s to give rise to the modern role-playing game. A role-playing game (RPG) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of characters and collaboratively create stories. Participants determine the actions of their characters based on their characterization, and the actions succeed or fail according to a system of rules and guidelines. Within the rules, they may improvise freely; their choices shape the direction and outcome of the games.
Wizardry V: Heart of the Maelstrom is the fifth scenario in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was published in 1988 by Sir-Tech Software, Inc. for the Commodore 64, Apple II and as a PC booter. A port for the SNES and FM Towns was later developed and published by ASCII Entertainment in Japan. Wizardry V was released in the US for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System by Capcom in 1993, and subsequently re-released for the Satellaview subsystem under the name BS Wizardry 5.
Wizardry IV: The Return of Werdna is the fourth scenario in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was published in 1987 by Sir-Tech Software, Inc.
King's Field is a first-person role-playing video game (RPG) developed and published by FromSoftware for the PlayStation in December 1994. The debut title of the King's Field series, the game has players navigating a vast underground labyrinth to discover the source of an invasion of monsters. Attacking and using spells are tied to a stamina meter, which is depleted with each action and must refill before the player can act again.
Role-playing games made in Japan made their first appearance during the 1980s. Today, there are hundreds of Japanese-designed games as well as several translated games. Traditional RPGs are referred to as tabletop RPGs or table-talk RPGs in Japan to distinguish them from the video role-playing game genre.
Dunjonquest is a series of single-player, single-character fantasy computer role-playing games by Automated Simulations. Temple of Apshai was the most successful and most widely ported game in the series. The games relied on strategy and pen & paper RPG style rules and statistics.
Dungeons & Dragons retro-clones are fantasy role-playing games that seek to emulate editions of Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) no longer supported by Wizards of the Coast. They are mostly made possible by the terms of the Open Game License and System Reference Document, which allows the use of much of the proprietary terminology of D&D that might otherwise collectively constitute a copyright infringement. While these rules lack the name D&D or any of the associated trademarks, their intent is to have a playable experience similar to those older editions.
Western role-playing video games are role-playing video games developed in the Western world, including The Americas and Europe. They originated on mainframe university computer systems in the 1970s, were later popularized by titles such as Ultima and Wizardry in the early- to mid-1980s, and continue to be produced for modern home computer and video game console systems. The genre's "Golden Age" occurred in the mid- to late-1980s, and its popularity suffered a downturn in the mid-1990s as developers struggled to keep up with hardware changes and increasing development costs. A later series of isometric role-playing games, published by Interplay Productions and Blizzard Entertainment, was developed over a longer time period and set new standards of production quality.
Eastern role-playing video games (RPGs) are RPGs developed in East Asia. Most Eastern RPGs are Japanese role-playing video games (JRPGs), developed in Japan. RPGs are also developed in South Korea and in China.
The Old School Revival, Old School Renaissance, or simply OSR, is a movement among players of tabletop role-playing games that draws inspiration from the earliest days of tabletop RPGs in the 1970s.