Architectural painting

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The old City Hall of Amsterdam by Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, 1657, now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam Saenredam - Het oude stadhuis te Amsterdam.jpeg
The old City Hall of Amsterdam by Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, 1657, now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam

Architectural painting (also Architecture painting) is a form of genre painting where the predominant focus lies on architecture, both outdoors views and interiors. While architecture was present in many of the earliest paintings and illuminations, it was mainly used as background or to provide rhythm to a painting. In the Renaissance, architecture was used to emphasize the perspective and create a sense of depth, like in Masaccio's Holy Trinity from the 1420s.

Genre art art genre that depicts scenes from everyday life

Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Such representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist. Some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, and so on.

Masaccio 15th-century Italian Renaissance painter

Masaccio, born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. According to Vasari, Masaccio was the best painter of his generation because of his skill at imitating nature, recreating lifelike figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of three-dimensionality. He employed nudes and foreshortenings in his figures. This had seldom been done before him.

<i>Holy Trinity</i> (Masaccio) fresco by Masaccio

The Holy Trinity, with the Virgin and Saint John and donors is a fresco by the Early Italian Renaissance painter Masaccio. It is located in the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.

Contents

In Western art, architectural painting as an independent genre developed in the 16th century in Flanders and the Netherlands, and reached its peak in 16th and 17th century Dutch painting. [1] [2] Later, it developed in a tool for Romantic paintings, with e.g. views of ruins becoming very popular. Closely related genres are architectural fantasies and trompe-l'oeils, especially illusionistic ceiling painting, and cityscapes.

Illusionistic ceiling painting art

Illusionistic ceiling painting, which includes the techniques of perspective di sotto in sù and quadratura, is the tradition in Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo art in which trompe l'oeil, perspective tools such as foreshortening, and other spatial effects are used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on an otherwise two-dimensional or mostly flat ceiling surface above the viewer. It is frequently used to create the illusion an open sky, such as with the oculus in Andrea Mantegna's Camera degli Sposi, or the illusion of an architectural space such as the cupola, one of Andrea Pozzo's frescoes in Sant'Ignazio, Rome. Illusionistic ceiling painting belongs to the general class of illusionism in art—art designed to create accurate representations of reality.

Cityscape art genre

In the visual arts a cityscape is an artistic representation, such as a painting, drawing, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area. It is the urban equivalent of a landscape. Townscape is roughly synonymous with cityscape, though it implies the same difference in urban size and density implicit in the difference between the words city and town. In urban design the terms refer to the configuration of built forms and interstitial space.

Western artists specialized in architectural painting

16th century

Architectural landscape by Hans Vredeman de Vries, now in the Hermitage Museum Hans Vredeman de Vries - Architectural Landscape - WGA25387.jpg
Architectural landscape by Hans Vredeman de Vries, now in the Hermitage Museum

The 16th century saw the development of architectural painting as a separate genre in Western art. The main centers in this period were Flanders and the Netherlands. The first important architectural painter was Dutch Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527-1607), who was both an architect and a painter. [3] Students of Hans Vredeman de Vries, both in Flanders and in the Netherlands, include his sons Salomon and Paul, and Hendrik van Steenwijk I. Through them the genre was popularized and their family and students turned it into one of the main domains of Dutch Golden Age painting.

Hans Vredeman de Vries Dutch renaissance painter

Hans Vredeman de Vries was a Dutch Renaissance architect, painter, and engineer. Vredeman de Vries is known for his publication in 1583 on garden design and his books with many examples on ornaments (1565) and perspective (1604).

Hendrik van Steenwijck I was a Dutch painter.

Dutch Golden Age painting

Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.

Flanders

Salomon Vredeman de Vries, was a Flemish painter and draughtsman who specialised in architectural paintings.

Paul Vredeman de Vries Flemish painter

Paul Vredeman de Vries, was a Flemish painter and draughtsman who specialised in architectural paintings and, in particular, church interiors.

Hendrick Aerts Flemish Renaissance painter

Hendrick Aerts was a Flemish painter and draftsman who painted mainly architectural paintings and was active in Gdańsk and Prague.

Netherlands

Antwerp Cathedral by Hendrik van Steenwijk I, now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest Hendrik van Steenwijk elder Antwerp cathedral.jpg
Antwerp Cathedral by Hendrik van Steenwijk I, now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest

17th century

Paul Vredeman de Vries, 1612, Interior of a Gothic Cathedral, now in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Interior of a Gothic Cathedral LACMA 49.17.5.jpg
Paul Vredeman de Vries, 1612, Interior of a Gothic Cathedral, now in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Flanders

Pieter Neefs the Elder Flemish painter

Pieter Neefs the Elder or Pieter Neeffs the Elder was a Flemish painter who specialized in architectural interiors of churches. Active in Antwerp, he was influenced by the works of the Dutch architectural painters Hendrik van Steenwijk the Elder and the Younger. His principal contribution to the genre were his nocturnal church interiors lit by two light sources.

Hendrik van Steenwijk II Flemish Baroque painter (1580-1649)

Hendrik van Steenwijck II (c.1580–1640) was a Baroque painter mostly of architectural interiors, but also of biblical scenes and still lifes.

Lodewijck Neefs painter

Ludovicus Neeffs was a Flemish Baroque painter who specialized in architectural interiors of churches. He is the least known of the Neeffs family of painters that were active in Antwerp, and several works attributed to either his father Pieter Neeffs I or younger brother Pieter Neeffs II might actually be from his hand.

Italy

Andrea Pozzo, 1703, illusionistic ceiling painting in the Jesuit Church, Vienna Fresco with Trompe l'oeuil - Andrea Pozzo -Jesuit Church Vienna.jpg
Andrea Pozzo, 1703, illusionistic ceiling painting in the Jesuit Church, Vienna
  • Viviano Codazzi (1606-1670)
  • Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709), mainly illusionistic paintings
  • Luigi Quaini (1643-1717), not a pure architectural painter, but a contributor of architecture to other paintings

Netherlands

Dirck van Delen, 1645, A family beside the tomb of Willem I in the Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, now in the Rijksmuseum Willem.zwijger.grablege.delft.jpg
Dirck van Delen, 1645, A family beside the tomb of Willem I in the Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, now in the Rijksmuseum

In the 17th century, architectural painting became one of the leading genres in the Dutch Golden Age, together with portrait painting and landscapes. Notable Dutch painter of the genre include:

18th century

France

Italy

Architectural paintings, and the related vedute or cityscapes, were especially popular in 18th century Italy. Another genre closely related to architectural painting proper were the capriccios, fantasies set in and focusing on an imaginary architecture.

Netherlands

19th century

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Heinrich Hansen, "Sala Delle Quattro Porte, Palazzo Ducale, Venice", 1883 Hansen venice.jpg
Heinrich Hansen, "Sala Delle Quattro Porte, Palazzo Ducale, Venice", 1883

France

Germany

Italy

United Kingdom

Thomas H. Shepherd, 1853, New England Bank, now in the British Museum Britains Bourse Shepherd.jpg
Thomas H. Shepherd, 1853, New England Bank, now in the British Museum

Modern art

Chinese architectural painting

In China, architectural painting was called "jiehua", and mainly seen as an inferior type of painting. Known masters of the genre include the 10th century painter Guo Zhongshu, and Wang Zhenpeng, who was active around 1300. [4]

Notes

  1. Muller, Sheila D. (2013). "Architectural painting". Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN   9781135495749.
  2. Fredericksen, Burton B. (1988). Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum: Second Edition. Getty Publications. p. 21. ISBN   9780892361373.
  3. Waagen, Gustav Friedrich (1860). Handbook of Painting: The German, Flemish, and Dutch Schools. John Murray. p. 245.
  4. Chung, Anita (2004). Drawing Boundaries: Architectural Images in Qing China. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN   9780824826635.

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