|Purpose||diagnosis of hydatid disease|
The Casoni test is a skin test used in the diagnosis of hydatid disease. The test involves the intradermal injection of 0.25 ml of sterilised fluid from hydatid cysts/human cyst and sterilised by Seitz filtration on forearm and equal volume of saline injected on the other forearm. Observations made for next 30 mins and after 1 to 2 days.A wheal response occurring at the injection site within 20 minutes is considered positive (immediate hypersensitivity). Delayed hypersensitivity reactions usually read after 18-24 hours. The test is positive in about 90% of cases of hydatid disease affecting the liver, but positive in less than 50% of patients with hydatid disease elsewhere in the body; false positive results are also common. Being a type I hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylactic reaction tray must be kept ready before carrying out the test. Consequently, serological tests are now generally used.
The test was described in 1912 by Tomaso Casoni.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis. It may also be used to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns. It is used by mouth, by injection into a muscle, or intravenously. Like all antibiotics, it is not useful for the treatment of viral infections.
The Mantoux test or Mendel–Mantoux test is a tool for screening for tuberculosis (TB) and for tuberculosis diagnosis. It is one of the major tuberculin skin tests used around the world, largely replacing multiple-puncture tests such as the tine test. The Heaf test, a form of tine test, was used until 2005 in the UK, when it was replaced by the Mantoux test. The Mantoux test is endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It was also used in the USSR and is now prevalent in most of the post-Soviet states.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.
Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms of the Echinococcus type. The two main types of the disease are cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis. Less common forms include polycystic echinococcosis and unicystic echinococcosis. The disease often starts without symptoms and this may last for years. The symptoms and signs that occur depend on the cyst's location and size. Alveolar disease usually begins in the liver but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or brain. When the liver is affected the person may have abdominal pain, weight loss, and turn slightly yellow from jaundice. Lung disease may cause pain in the chest, shortness of breath and coughing.
Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over-reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. The Gell and Coombs classification of hypersensitivity is the most widely used, and distinguishes four types of immune response which result in bystander tissue damage.
Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum, and antivenom immunoglobulin, is a medication made from antibodies that is used to treat certain venomous bites and stings. Antivenoms are recommended only if there is significant toxicity or a high risk of toxicity. The specific antivenom needed depends on the species involved. It is given by injection.
Albendazole, also known as albendazolum, is a medication used for the treatment of a variety of parasitic worm infestations. It is useful for giardiasis, trichuriasis, filariasis, neurocysticercosis, hydatid disease, pinworm disease, and ascariasis, among other diseases It is taken by mouth.
Tuberculin, also known as purified protein derivative, is a combination of proteins that are used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This use is referred to as the tuberculin skin test and is recommended only for those at high risk. Injection is done into the skin. After 48 to 72 hours if there is more than a five to ten millimeter area of swelling the test is considered positive.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. It is a non-specific medical sign having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, hepatic tumours, or metabolic disorder. Often, hepatomegaly will present as an abdominal mass. Depending on the cause, it may sometimes present along with jaundice.
Echinococcus multilocularis is a small cyclophyllid tapeworm found extensively in the northern hemisphere. E. multilocularis, along with other members of the Echinococcus genus, produce diseases known as echinococcosis. Unlike E. granulosus,E. multilocularis produces many small cysts that spread throughout the internal organs of the infected animal. The resultant disease is called Alveolar echinococcosis, and is caused by ingesting the eggs of E. multilocularis.
Ceftazidime, sold under the brand names Fortaz among others, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. Specifically it is used for joint infections, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, malignant otitis externa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and vibrio infection. It is given by injection into a vein, muscle, or eye.
Cefotaxime is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. Specifically it is used to treat joint infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, sepsis, gonorrhea, and cellulitis. It is given either by injection into a vein or muscle.
Amikacin is an antibiotic used for a number of bacterial infections. This includes joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. It is also used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It is used by injection into a vein using an IV or into a muscle.
Cyclizine, sold under a number of brand names, is a medication used to treat and prevent nausea, vomiting and dizziness due to motion sickness or vertigo. It may also be used for nausea after general anaesthesia or that which developed from opioid use. It is taken by mouth, in the rectum, or injected into a vein.
Fremitus is a vibration transmitted through the body. In common medical usage, it usually refers to assessment of the lungs by either the vibration intensity felt on the chest wall and/or heard by a stethoscope on the chest wall with certain spoken words, although there are several other types.
In immunology, the Arthus reaction is a type of local type III hypersensitivity reaction. Type III hypersensitivity reactions are immune complex-mediated, and involve the deposition of antigen/antibody complexes mainly in the vascular walls, serosa, and glomeruli. This reaction is usually encountered in experimental settings following the injection of antigens.
Skin allergy testing or skin prick test (SPT) is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response.
Maropitant (INN; trade name: Cereniasə-REE-nee-ə), used as maropitant citrate (USAN), is a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist which was developed by Zoetis specifically for the treatment of motion sickness and vomiting in dogs. It was approved by the FDA in 2007 for use in dogs and in 2012 for cats.
The Tripoli Central Hospital is a general hospital, located in Tripoli, Libya.
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