Claude Ribbe

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Claude Ribbe on 28 April 2007 during the Marche contre les discriminations envers les Francais d'Outre-Mer, in Paris, France. Claude Ribbe.jpg
Claude Ribbe on 28 April 2007 during the Marche contre les discriminations envers les Français d'Outre-Mer, in Paris, France.

Claude Ribbe (born 13 October 1954) is a French writer, activist and filmmaker of Caribbean origin.

Caribbean region to the center-east of America composed of many islands and of coastal regions of continental countries surrounding the Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Contents

Early life and education

Ribbe was born in Paris and is alumnus of the Ecole normale superieure.

Career

Ribbe has specialised in the history of colonialism in the Caribbean. He has also been active in promoting civil rights in France for people of ethnic African and Caribbean origin.

Through his books and films, he has supported the recognition of figures such as Eugene Bullard (Eugene Jacques Bullard), Chevalier de Saint-George, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, in 1793 the first man of Afro-Antilles origin to be promoted to general in the French Army.

Eugene Bullard first African-American military pilot

Eugene Jacques Bullard, born Eugene James Bullard, was the first African-American military pilot. His life has been surrounded by many legends. However, Bullard, who flew for France, was unquestionably one of the few black combat pilots during World War I, along with William Robinson Clarke, a Jamaican who flew for the Royal Flying Corps, Domenico Mondelli from Italy and Ahmet Ali Çelikten of the Ottoman Empire.

Thomas-Alexandre Dumas French general

Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie was a general in Revolutionary France and after Abram Petrovich Gannibal in Imperial Russia, was one of the highest-ranking men of African descent ever in a European army. He was the first person of color in the French military to become brigadier general, the first to become divisional general, and the first to become general-in-chief of a French army. Dumas and Toussaint Louverture were the two highest-ranking officers of sub-Saharan African descent in the Western world until 1975, when "Chappie" James achieved the equivalent rank of four-star general in the United States Air Force.

In his book Le Crime de Napoleon (2005), Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe. He said this was a model for Hitler's holocaust nearly 140 years later.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Slavery system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs.

Saint-Domingue French colony on the isle of Hispaniola

Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti.

In Ribbe's words, Napoleon, then First Consul, was the man who, for the first time in history, 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'. [1]

Books

Napoleon's Crimes: A Blueprint for Hitler is a book published in 2005 by French writer Claude Ribbe, who is of Caribbean origin. In the book, Ribbe advances the thesis that Napoleon Bonaparte during the Haitian Revolution first used gas chambers as a method of mass execution, 140 years before Hitler and the Nazis. His accusations in the book has caused a minor political and academic storm when it was published, and its premise remains under contention to this day.

Films

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