Executive Council of Upper Canada

Last updated

The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. Members of the Executive Council were not necessarily members of the Legislative Assembly but were usually members of the Legislative Council. Members were appointed, often for life. The first five members were appointed in July 1792. The Council was dissolved on 10 February 1841 when Upper Canada and Lower Canada were united into the Province of Canada. It was replaced by the Executive Council of the Province of Canada the same year.

Contents

After the War of 1812, the Executive Council was dominated by members of the Family Compact, an elite clique based in York.

List of Members of the Executive Council

MemberTownStart The bestStopNotes
James Baby Windsor, Ontario 9 July 179219 February 1833died in office
Alexanider Grant, Sr. York 9 July 1792May, 1813died in office and in the United States
William Osgoode York9 July 1792July 1794to Lower Canada; left British North America for Britain 1801 and died in London; Chief Justice of Upper Canada 1794-1801
William Robertson 9 July 17924 November 1792resigned; eventually moved to Lower Canada and England; died in London
Peter Russell York9 July 179230 September 1808died in office
Æneas Shaw 1York21 June 17941807retired
Jacob Mountain Quebec City 10 June 1794N/Anever attended; died in Quebec City
John Elmsley, Sr. York1 January 1796July 1802Born in Marylebone in 1762, London and was Chief Justice of Upper Canada 1801, moved to Montreal as Chief Justice of Lower Canada 1802; died in Montreal 1805
John McGill York2 March 179613 August 1818became Receiver General of Upper Canada (5 October 1813 to 2 December 1819)
David William Smith Norfolk, Oxford & Middlesex 2 March 1796July 1802left Canada for England; died in Alnwick, Northumberland
Henry Allcock York14 October 1802September 1804Chief Justice of Upper Canada 1802-1804; moved to Lower Canada to become Chief Justice and member of the Executive Council of Lower Canada 1805; died in Quebec City
Thomas Scott York8 April 1805August 1816 Attorney General 1801-1806; later Chief Justice of Upper Canada; granted a pension and retired
William Dummer Powell York8 October 1808September 1825Chief Justice of Upper Canada; resigned office upon pension
Prideaux Selby York8 October 18089 May 1813died in office
Isaac Brock York30 September 181213 October 1812died heroically and buried at Queenston Heights near Newark, Upper Canada
Roger Hale Sheaffe York20 October 18124 June 1813replaced after being recalled to England; died in Edinburgh
Baron Francis de Rottenburg York19 June 1813N/Anever attended; left of Lower Canada and England where he died in
Gordon Drummond York4 November 1813March 1814became Governor-General and Administrator of Canada; return to England and died there
Samuel Smith Etobicoke 30 November 1813October 1825retired
John Strachan 2York11 May 181512 March 1836Bishop of Anglican Church in Upper Canada; resigned 3
William Claus Niagara 12 February 1818September 1824retired? died of cancer 1826
George Herchmer Markland 4York22 October 182212 March 1836resigned 3; died in Kingston, Ontario
Peter Robinson York24 December 182312 March 1836resigned 3
James Buchanan Macaulay York5 May 1825July 1829resigned and appointed temporary judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, later as permanent judge
William Campbell York26 October 1825March 1828unable to attend due to poor health and retired 1829; Chief Justice of Upper Canada 1825-1829
John Beverley Robinson York25 April 182925 January 1831resigned; Solicitor General 1815-1818; Attorney General 1818-1829; acting Attorney General 1812-1814
Joseph Wells York13 September 183012 March 1836resigned 3
John Elmsley Jr. (1801-63) York20 September 18301841retired to management of his personal business; died in Toronto 1863
Robert Baldwin Toronto20 February 183612 March 1836resigned 3
John Henry Dunn Toronto20 February 183612 March 1836resigned 3 and returned to England; died in England
John Rolph Toronto20 February 183612 March 1836resigned 3; died in Mitchell, Ontario
William Allan Toronto14 March 183610 February 1841retired
Augustus Warren Baldwin Toronto14 March 183610 February 1841re-appointed to the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada
John Elmsley, Jr.Toronto14 March 18368 January 1839second term; died in Toronto 1863
Robert Baldwin Sullivan Toronto14 March 183610 February 1841not re-appointed; later appointed to the Queen's Bench
William Henry Draper Toronto27 December 183610 February 1841elected to the 1st Parliament of the United Canadas 1841; Solicitor General 1837-1839 and Attorney General 1840-1841
Richard Alexander Tucker Kingston 8 December 183810 February 1841appointed registrar of the Province of Canada in 1841-1851; retired to England 1851
Isaac Fraser Ernestown16 July 183910 February 1841

Notes:

  1. Æneas Shaw was an honorary member after 1803.
  2. The Reverend John Strachan was an honorary member until 25 July 1817.
  3. On 12 March 1836, all members of the council resigned to protest when the new Lieutenant Governor Sir Francis Bond Head refused to consult with his council.
  4. George Markland was an honorary member until 6 July 1827.

Related Research Articles

Province of Canada 1841–1867 UK possession in North America

The Province of Canada was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of 1837–1838.

Upper Canada Former British colony in North America

The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay. The "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes, mostly above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast.

Château Clique Political party in Canada

The Château Clique, or Clique du Château, was a group of wealthy families in Lower Canada in the early 19th century. They were the Lower Canadian equivalent of the Family Compact in Upper Canada. They were also known on the electoral scene as the Parti bureaucrate.

National Assembly of Quebec Legislative body of the Province of Quebec, Canada

The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs. The Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems. The assembly has 125 members elected first past the post from single-member districts.

Legislative Assembly of Ontario Unicameral legislature of Ontario

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the unicameral legislative chamber of the Canadian province of Ontario. Along with the sovereign, who grants royal assent to bills passed by its members—known as Members of Provincial Parliament (MPPs)—the body comprises the Legislature of Ontario or Parliament of Ontario. The assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto.

Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island

The Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island is the sole chamber of the General Assembly of Prince Edward Island. The Legislative Assembly meets at Province House, which is located at the intersection of Richmond and Great George Streets in Charlottetown. Bills passed by the Assembly are given royal assent by the Queen of Canada in Right of Prince Edward Island, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Prince Edward Island.

Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada Historical parliament in Canada

The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada. Its legislative power was subject to veto by the appointed Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, and Legislative Council.

Legislative Council of Upper Canada Historical upper house of the province of Upper Canada

The Legislative Council of Upper Canada was the upper house governing the province of Upper Canada. Modelled after the British House of Lords, it was created by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was specified that the council should consist of at least seven members. Members were appointed for life but could be dropped for non-attendance. The first nine members of the council were appointed on 12 July 1792. The speaker was usually the Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench. The Legislative Council was dissolved on 10 February 1841 when Upper and Lower Canada were united into the Province of Canada. Some members were reappointed to the Legislative Council of the united Province.

1st Parliament of the Province of Canada Parliament of the former Province of Canada

The First Parliament of the Province of Canada was summoned in 1841, following the union of Upper Canada and Lower Canada as the Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. The Parliament continued until dissolution in late 1844.

James Morris (Canada West politician) Businessman and politician, Province of Canada (1798-1865)

James Morris was a businessman, banker and political figure in Canada West. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, as a Reformer. He was later a member of the Legislative Council, serving as the Speaker of the Legislative Council. He was also a member of the Executive Council of the province.

Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada

The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was the lower house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838. The legislative assembly was created by the Constitutional Act of 1791. The lower house consisted of elected legislative councilors who created bills to be passed up to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada, whose members were appointed by the governor general.

The Legislative Council of Lower Canada was the upper house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838. The upper house consisted of appointed councillors who voted on bills passed up by the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada. The legislative council was created by the Constitutional Act. Many of the members first called in the Council in 1792 had served as councillors in the Council for the Affairs of the Province of Quebec.

The Legislative Council of Newfoundland was the upper house of the General Assembly of Newfoundland from 1833 to 1934.

Politics of Manitoba

The Province of Manitoba, similar to other Canadian provinces and territories, is governed through a Westminster-based parliamentary system. The Manitoba government's authority to conduct provincial affairs is derived from the Constitution of Canada, which divides legislative powers among the federal parliament and the provincial legislatures. Manitoba operates through three levels of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary. The executive branch—the Executive Council of Manitoba—consists of the Premier, who is the head of government and the President of the Executive Council. The legislative branch—Manitoba Legislature—consists of the Speaker and elected members, who are served by the Clerk, the Officers of the Legislative Assembly, and the employees of the legislative service. The Legislative Assembly consists of the 57 members (MLAs) elected to represent the people of Manitoba.

1st Quebec Legislature

The First Legislature of Quebec was summoned in 1867 when the new Canadian province of Quebec was created, as part of the new country of Canada.

General Assembly of Prince Edward Island

The General Assembly of Prince Edward Island is the unicameral legislature of the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada, consisting of the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island (Crown-in-Parliament) and the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island. The legislature was first established in 1773.

The Executive Council of the Province of Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada from its inception in 1841 to 1848.

Legislative Council of Nova Scotia

The Legislative Council of Nova Scotia was the upper house of the legislature of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It existed from 1838 to May 31, 1928. From the establishment of responsible government in 1848, members were appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia on the advice of the Premier.

Parliament of the Province of Canada Legislature for the Province of Canada (1841–1867)

The Parliament of the Province of Canada was the legislature for the Province of Canada, made up of the two regions of Canada West and Canada East.

References