French frigate Alceste (1780)

Last updated

Lutine1.jpg
History
Flag of the Kingdom of France (1814-1830).svg Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg France
Name:Alceste
Ordered: 20 April 1780
Builder: Toulon shipyard
Laid down: May 1780
Launched: 28 October 1780
Commissioned: February 1781
Captured: by Britain, 29 August 1793
Savoyard flag.svg Kingdom of Sardinia
Name:Alceste
Acquired: 29 August 1793
Captured: By Boussole on 8 June 1794
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Civil and Naval Ensign of France.svg France
Name:Alceste
Acquired: 8 June 1794
Captured: By HMS Bellona, 18 June 1799
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Name:Alceste
Acquired: 18 June 1799
Fate: Floating battery (1801); broken up in May 1802
General characteristics
Class and type: Magicienne class frigate
Displacement:
  • 600 tonnes
  • 5 260 tonnes fully loaded
Tons burthen: 932 (bm) [1]
Length: 44.2 m (145 ft)
Beam: 11.2 m (37 ft)
Draught: 5.2 m (17 ft) (22 French feet)
Complement: 240 in British service; 96 as a floating battery [1]
Armament: 26 × 12-pounder long guns + 6 × 6-pounder long guns
Armour: Timber

Alceste was a Magicienne class frigate of the French Navy, launched in 1780, that the British seized at the Siege of Toulon. They transferred her to the Kingdom of Sardinia, but the French recaptured her a year later in the Action of 8 June 1794. The British captured her again at the Action of 18 June 1799 and took her into service as HMS Alceste. In 1801 she became a floating battery and she was sold the next year.

French Navy Maritime arm of the French Armed Forces

The French Navy, informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. Dating back to 1624, the French Navy is one of the world's oldest naval forces. It has participated in conflicts around the globe and played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire.

Siege of Toulon siege

The Siege of Toulon was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon.

Kingdom of Sardinia former Italian state (1324–1861)

The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

Contents

Career

At the outbreak of the French Revolution, Alceste served in the Mediterranean until she was put in the reserved and disarmed in Toulon. The royalist insurrection found her there; the British, who supported the royalists, seized her and transferred her to the Kingdom of Sardinia before the conclusion of the Siege of Toulon.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

The 32-gun Boudeuse recaptured her in the Action of 8 June 1794. The French then took her back into French service. On 4 August 1794 Alceste and Vestale were off Cape Bon when they encountered and captured the brig HMS Scout. The French took Scout into service under existing name, but she wrecked on 12 December 1795 off Cadiz. [2]

French frigate <i>Boudeuse</i> (1766) ship

Boudeuse was a 26-gun, 12-pounder-armed sailing frigates named La Boudeuse on 6 June 1765. She is most famous for being the exploration ship of Louis Antoine de Bougainville between 1766 and 1769. She also served in the American and French Revolutionary Wars, during which she captured two enemy vessels. She was broken up for firewood at Malta in early 1800.

Under Captain Louis-Jean-Nicolas Lejoille, Alceste was part of Admiral Martin's squadron, which captured HMS Berwick in 1795.

Louis-Jean-Nicolas Lejoille French Navy officer

Louis-Jean-Nicolas Lejoille was a French Navy officer and captain.

Pierre Martin (French Navy officer) French naval officer

Admiral Pierre Martin was a French Navy officer and admiral.

HMS Berwick was a 74-gun Elizabeth-class third rate of the Royal Navy, launched at Portsmouth Dockyard on 18 April 1775, to a design by Sir Thomas Slade. She fought the French at the Battle of Ushant (1778) and the Dutch at the Battle of Dogger Bank (1781). The French captured her in the Action of 8 March 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars and she served with them with some success then and at the start of the Napoleonic Wars until the British recaptured her at the Battle of Trafalgar. Berwick sank shortly thereafter in a storm.

Jean Joseph Hubert took command of Alceste on 31 March 1795. She took part in the Battle of Hyères Islands, where she battled several British ships before rescuing Alcide. [3]

Jean-Joseph Hubert was a French Navy officer and captain.

The Alcide was a 74-gun Pégase class ship of the line of the French Navy, launched in 1782.

In March 1796, Alceste ferried Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet to his appointment as ambassador to Constantinople, along with military advisors.

Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet French diplomat

Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet was a French General and politician during the period of the French Revolution.

From November 1796 to January 1797, Alceste patrolled the coasts of Italy under Captain Jean-François-Timothée Trullet.

She took part in the Expédition d'Égypte under Jean-Baptiste Barré, ferrying General Jean Reynier, and was later appointed to a squadron under Admiral Jean-Baptiste Perrée, which also comprised the frigates Junon and Alceste, and Courageuse, and the brigs Salamine and Alerte. In the Action of 18 June 1799, HMS Bellona captured Alceste.

Fate

The Royal Navy commissioned Alceste under Commander Thomas Bayley, who shortly thereafter received promotion to post captain in March 1800. She arrived at Chatham on 4 April. [1] There she was registered as a sloop in July 1801 and fitted as a floating battery in August. [4] She was sold at Sheerness on 20 May 1802 for £1,445. [1]

See also

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 Winfield (2008), p.205.
  2. Winfield and Roberts (2015), p.125.
  3. Quintin, Danielle et Bernard (2003). Dictionnaire des capitaines de Vaisseau de Napoléon. S.P.M. p. 175. ISBN   2-901952-42-9.
  4. Demerliac (1996), p. 64, #388.

Related Research Articles

Thirteen vessels of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Mohawk, after the Mohawk, an indigenous tribe of North America:

French ship <i>Brutus</i> (1780)

Brutus was a merchant ship built in 1780 at Bordeaux. She was commissioned as a privateer in 1793 at Bordeaux. However, the French Navy purchased her in September 1793 at Brest and classed her as a corvette. The French Navy later converted her to a brig. HMS Mermaid captured her on 10 October 1795.

French frigate <i>Artémise</i> (1794) French frigate launched in 1794

The Artémise was a 32-gun Magicienne class frigate of the French Navy.

French frigate <i>Engageante</i> (1766)

Engageante was a 26-gun frigate of the French Navy, only ship of her class, built to a design by Jean-François Etienne. The British captured her in 1794 and converted her to a hospital ship. She served as a hospital ship until she was broken up in 1811.

French frigate <i>Sensible</i> (1788)

Sensible was a 32-gun Magicienne-class frigate of the French Navy. The Royal Navy captured her in 1798 off Malta and took into service as HMS Sensible. She was lost in a grounding off Ceylon in 1802.

Sardine was a corvette of the French Navy, launched in 1771. The Royal Navy captured her at the Siege of Toulon but the French retook her when the Anglo-Spanish force retreated. The Royal Navy captured her again in 1796. She then served as HMS Sardine until the Royal Navy sold her in 1806.

The French brig Alerte was launched in April 1787. The Royal Navy captured her at Toulon in August 1793, and renamed her HMS Vigilante. The British set her on fire when they evacuated Toulon in December of that year. After the French rebuilt her as Alerte, she served at the Battle of Aboukir Bay. The British recaptured her in June 1799 and took her into service as HMS Minorca. Minorca was sold in 1802.

The French frigate Mignonne was a one-off design by Jean-Baptiste Doumet-Revest, and launched in 1767 at Toulon. Some notable French captains commanded her before the British captured her at Calvi in 1794 and took her into the Royal Navy as HMS Mignonne. She was burnt in 1797 as useless.

Utile was a gabarre of the French Royal Navy, launched in 1784. The British captured her in the Mediterranean in 1796 and she served briefly there before being laid up in 1797 and sold in 1798.

Courageuse was a 12-pounder Concorde class frigate of the French Navy. She was launched in 1778. The British captured her in 1799 and thereafter used her as a receiving ship or prison hulk at Malta before breaking her up in 1802.

The Minerve class was a type of 40-gun frigate of the French Navy, carrying 18-pounder long guns as their main armament. Six ships of this type were built at Toulon Dockyard, and launched between 1782 and 1794. The frigates served the French Navy briefly during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Royal Navy captured all six between 1793 and 1799 and took them into service, with all but one serving in the Napoleonic Wars, and some thereafter.

<i>Pégase</i>-class ship of the line

The Pégase class was a class of 74-gun ships of the French Navy, built to a common design by naval constructor Antoine Groignard. It comprised six ships, all ordered during 1781 and all named on 13 July 1781.

Poulette was a French Coquette-class corvette built to a design by Joseph-Marie-Blaise Coulomb and launched in March 1781. She served the French navy until 1793 when the British captured her at Toulon in 1793. She served briefly in the Royal Navy, including at the battle of Genoa in 1795, until she was burned in October 1796 to prevent her falling into French hands.

HMS Avenger was a 16-gun ship-sloop of the British Royal Navy. Previously she was the French privateer Marseillaise and then naval corvette Vengeur, which the British Army captured during the battle for Martinique in 1794. The Admiralty sold her 1802.

The French corvette Républicaine was a merchant ship launched in 1793 that the French Navy requisitioned in 1795 at Grenada. On 14 October 1795 Mermaid captured her in the Leeward Islands. The Royal Navy took Republicaine into service as HMS Republican, a lugger of 18 guns. It is not clear that Republican was ever commissioned. The Navy sold her at Grenada in 1803.

The Action of 31 May 1796 was a small action during the French Revolutionary Wars in which a Royal Navy squadron under the command of Commodore Horatio Nelson, in the 64-gun third-rate ship of the line HMS Agamemnon, captured a seven-vessel French convoy that was sailing along the coast from Menton to Vado in the Mediterranean. The British succeeded in capturing the entire convoy, with minimal casualties to themselves.

Seven ships of the French Navy have borne the name Sans-Culotte in honour of the Sans-culottes:

The French brig Duc de Chartres was built between 1779 and 1780 at Le Havre as a 24-gun privateer. As a privateer she captured one British warship before in 1781 the Royal Navy captured her. The Royal Navy took her into service as HMS Duc de Chartres. She then captured several American privateers and armed merchant vessels, and one French naval corvette in a noteworthy single-ship action. The Navy sold Duc de Chartres in 1784.

Belliquese was a French Navy 12-gun brig launched in 1793 as the name-vessel of her class, and sold in 1797 to serve as a privateer. The British Royal Navy captured her in 1798. Though the Royal Navy named her HMS Bellete and took her measurements, it never actually commissioned her; she was sold in 1801.

HMS Resolue was the Spanish xebec O Hydra, that the French captured in 1794 and renamed Résolue in 1795. The British captured her in 1795; she was last listed in 1802.

References