Hamm

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Hamm
Hamm Luftbild Innenstadt 2007.jpg
City of Hamm
Flagge der Stadt Hamm.svg
Flag
DEU Hamm COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Hamm
Hamm
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hamm
North Rhine-Westphalia location map 01.svg
Red pog.svg
Hamm
Coordinates: 51°41′N7°49′E / 51.683°N 7.817°E / 51.683; 7.817 Coordinates: 51°41′N7°49′E / 51.683°N 7.817°E / 51.683; 7.817
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Arnsberg
District Urban district
SubdivisionsHamm-Mitte, Bockum-Hövel, Heessen, Rhynern, Uentrop, Pelkum, Herringen
Government
   Lord mayor (202025) Marc Herter [1] (SPD)
Area
  Total226.26 km2 (87.36 sq mi)
Elevation
37.7 - 102 m (−296.9 ft)
Population
 (2020-12-31) [2]
  Total178,967
  Density790/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
59000-59077
Dialling codes 02381, 02382, 02383, 02384, 02385, 02388, 02389, 02307
Vehicle registration HAM
Website www.hamm.de

Hamm (German pronunciation: [ˈham] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Latin: Hammona) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area. As of 2016 its population was 179,397. The city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station is an important hub for rail transport and renowned for its distinctive station building.

Contents

History

Coat of arms

The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years. It shows the markish chessboard ("märkischen Schachbalken") in red and silver on a golden field. Originally it was the founders' coat of arms, i. e. the Counts of Mark. The chessboard and the colours are often displayed in the coats of arms of further towns founded by that family line. Similarly, the colours of the city are red and white.

Overview

The name Ham means "corner" in the old Low German dialect spoken at that time. In the old times the name thom Hamme would be used, which evolved slowly into its modern form Hamm. The name derives from the description of the Hamm's location in the corner of the Lippe river and the narrow Ahse affluent, where it was founded on Ash Wednesday in March 1226 by Count Adolf I of the Mark.

Pauluskirche former St.Georg, main church of Hamm Pauluskirche Hamm.jpg
Pauluskirche former St.Georg, main church of Hamm
"Grundungsprivileg" Town rights of Hamm Gruendungsprivileg Hamm.jpg
"Gründungsprivileg" Town rights of Hamm
Hamm railway station hall Hamm station hall.jpeg
Hamm railway station hall
Sri Kamadchi Ampal Temple Hamm Hamm Sri Kamadchi Ampal-Tempel.jpg
Sri Kamadchi Ampal Temple Hamm

Population development

[ citation needed ]

Until 1833 any population is an approximation, in later times the population was counted or updated by the local government or other institutions of the government.

yearpopulation
16181,000
17193,250
17983,065
18184,680
18326,272
3 December 1861 ¹11,600
3 December 1867 ¹16,000
1 December 1871 ¹16,924
1 December 1875 ¹18,877
1 December 1880 ¹20,800
1 December 1885 ¹22,523
1 December 1890 ¹24,969
2 December 1895 ¹28,589
yearpopulation
1 December 1900 ¹31,371
1 December 1905 ¹38,429
1 December 1910 ¹43,663
1 December 1916 ¹40,776
5 December 1917 ¹40,516
8 October 1919 ¹45,756
16 June 1925 ¹49,777
16 June 1933 ¹53,532
17 May 1939 ¹59,035
31 December 194550,971
29 October 1946 ¹49,751
13 September 1950 ¹59,866
25 September 1956 ¹66,327
yearpopulation
6 June 1961 ¹70,641
31 December 196573,520
27 May 1970 ¹84,942
31 December 1975172,210
31 December 1980171,869
31 December 1985166,379
25 May 1987 ¹171,170
31 December 1990179,639
31 December 1995183,408
31 December 2000181,197
31 December 2005180,849

¹ "Volkszählungsergebnis" counted population

Significant minority groups
NationalityPopulation (2018)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 9,009
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 3,255
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 2,929
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1,934
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1,444
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1,101
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 970
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 661
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 512
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 511
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 239
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 204
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 193
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 163
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 161

Others - 2,781

Politics and structure

Mayor

The current Mayor ( Oberbürgermeister ) of Hamm is Marc Herter of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) since 2020. The Mayor is directly elected for a five year term. Prior to the 1999 local administration reform in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Oberstadtdirektor was the chief executive of the city, and was chosen by the city council.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 13 September 2020, with a runoff held on 27 September, and the results were as follows:

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes %Votes %
Marc Herter Social Democratic Party 28,77540.742,19063.6
Thomas Hunsteger-Petermann Christian Democratic Union 26,46437.424,17736.4
Arnela Sačić Alliance 90/The Greens 5,0867.2
Pierre Jung Alternative for Germany 3,1374.4
Ingo Müller Free Democratic Party 2,4763.5
Cevdet GürlePro Hamm1,8292.6
Gerd Heistermann Independent 1,1901.7
Sandra Riveiro Vega The Left 1,1111.6
Peter Kessler Independent 4960.7
Christian Worch The Right 1730.2
Valid votes70,73799.066,36799.3
Invalid votes7291.04910.7
Total71,466100.066,858100.0
Electorate/voter turnout136,56152.3136,46749.0
Source: State Returning Officer

City council

The Hamm city council governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 13 September 2020, and the results were as follows:

PartyVotes %+/-Seats+/-
Social Democratic Party (SPD)25,99237.1Increase2.svg 2.022Increase2.svg 2
Christian Democratic Union (CDU)23,38533.4Decrease2.svg 9.219Decrease2.svg 6
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)8,92512.7Increase2.svg 5.57Increase2.svg 3
Free Democratic Party (FDP)3,5755.1Increase2.svg 1.03Increase2.svg 1
Alternative for Germany (AfD)3,2744.7Increase2.svg 4.03Increase2.svg 3
Pro Hamm (WG Pro)2,5553.6Increase2.svg 0.82±0
The Left (Die Linke)2,0682.9Decrease2.svg 1.42Decrease2.svg 1
The Right (Die Rechte)2130.3Decrease2.svg 0.60Decrease2.svg 1
Free Voters (FW)1220.2Decrease2.svg 0.20±0
Valid votes70,10998.4
Invalid votes1,1631.6
Total71,272100.058±0
Electorate/voter turnout136,56152.2Increase2.svg 0.7
Source: State Returning Officer

Incorporations

In 1939, 1968 and 1975 Hamm incorporated several towns and municipalities: in 1939 the village Mark (which the Counts and the county took the name of) and in 1968 the villages of Berge and Westtünnen. In the reorganisation of 1975, the following towns and municipalities were incorporated into the City of Hamm: [ citation needed ]

  1. The town of Bockum-Hövel, Lüdinghausen district
  2. The town of Heessen, Beckum district
  3. The municipality of Uentrop, Unna district, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Braam-Ostwennemar, Frielinghausen, Haaren, Norddinker, Schmehausen, Uentrop, Vöckinghausen and Werries
  4. The municipality of Rhynern , (Unna district, without Hilbeck incorporated by Werl), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Allen, Freiske, Hilbeck, Osterflierich, Osttünnen, Rhynern, Süddinker and Wambeln
  5. The municipality of Pelkum, (Unna district), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Herringen, Lerche, Pelkum, Sandbochum, Weetfeld and parts of Wiescherhöfen.

The number of citizens more than doubles from 83.000 in 1974 to 173.000 in 1975.

City structure

DEU Ascheberg COA.svg
Ascheberg 1
DE Drensteinfurt COA.svg
Drensteinfurt 2
DEU Ahlen COA.svg
Ahlen 2
DEU Lippetal COA.svg
Lippetal 3
Wappen Werne.svg
Werne 4
Wappenkarte der Stadt Hamm.png
Hamm
(Map of Hamm's quarters)
DE Welver COA.svg
Welver 3
DEU Bergkamen COA.svg
Bergkamen 4
DEU Kamen COA.svg
Kamen 4
DEU Boenen COA.svg
Bönen 4
DEU Unna COA.svg
Unna 4
1 District Coesfeld
2 District Warendorf
3 District Soest
4 District Unna

Hamm has seven quarters ( Stadtbezirk ), each divided into residential areas like City, which actually means the center of the city around the Pauluschurch or like Hövel-Radbod near the former entrance to the coalmine Radbod in the quarter Bockum-Hövel. The following table shows the situation in 2006. Every quarter is named with the prefix Hamm, like Hamm-Bockum-Hövel or Hamm-Mitte.

Quarter /
Stadtbezirk
Pop. Pop. density Area
/km2/sq mikm2sq mi
Bockum-Hövel35,4681,0862,81032.6612.61
Heessen23,6398092,10029.2311.29
Herringen21,0771,0882,82019.387.48
Mitte34,4073,1548,17010.914.21
Pelkum18,9746281,63030.2111.66
Rhynern18,64831582059.2322.87
Uentrop28,1226301,60044.6217.23
Total180.3557972,060226.2587.36

The former town Bockum-Hövel today forms the quarter with the largest number of inhabitants, closely followed by the centre of the city Hamm-Mitte. The latter is the smallest quarter by metric size.

Twin towns – sister cities

Hamm is twinned with: [3]

Miscellaneous

In 2006 Hamm was the first city to accomplish a "Ratsbürgerentscheid" (citizens decision). Subject of the plebiscite was a plan to build a 43 ha city lake (2007–2010) near the city centre. 136,521 citizens were entitled to vote, 57,563 used that possibility and 56.9% refused their approbation for the project. As minimal vote 20% (of the total 136,521 voters) had to decide between one of the possibilities (20% for Yes or 20% for NO). The city council accepted the voting and stopped the plans. This procedure is planned for future projects in NRW. Also in Hamm established was the "Baugerichtstag e. V." a society organizing a congress about the German building law. The congress is held in a two years term.

Health

The largest health facility is the Marien Hospital with its two separate buildings, Marien Hospital I the old building within the centre of the city and Marien Hospital II together 587 beds. Then there is the (EVK Hamm) Evangelisches Krankenhaus Hamm (Protestant Hospital) combined with the children's hospital south of the centre together 493 beds, the St. Barbara Klinik (Clinic) in Heessen with 422 beds and the Malteser Krankenhaus (Hospital) St. Josef in Bockum-Hövel with 260 beds. Additional there are the Klinik für manuelle Therapie (Clinic for manual therapy) within the quarter Bad Hamm (138 beds), the cure district. The Westfälisches Institut Hamm für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und psychotherapie (Westphalian Institute Hamm for Children's- and Youth psychiatry and psychotherapy) as an Institute of the federal state (158 beds) and the private Klinik (clinic) am Bärenbrunnen. (All Hospitals together have 2058 beds.) Former Hospitals are:

Education

Hamm has six Gymnasien (grammar schools), two comprehensive schools and several Realschulen, Hauptschulen and Grundschulen (elementary schools). The oldest Gymnasium in Hamm is the Gymnasium Hammonense which was established as academic school (small university) with three faculties in 1657. The school declined in its importance and in 1781 merged with the local Latin school and got reformed by Prussia. The new combined school was humanist Gymnasium. In 1867 the "Märkisches Gymnasium" followed as the second Gymnasium of Hamm, in 1902 the "Freiherr vom Stein Gymnasium", in 1924 the "Beisenkamp Gymnasium" – first as "Oberlyceum" (Gymnasium for girls) – and in 1968 the "Galilei-Gymnasium" were established. Additionally in Schloss Heessen there is a private school including the Gymnasium. Both comprehensive schools in Hamm are younger foundations by the city during school reforms of NRW. Hamm is also well known for its many vocational schools:

In 2005 a small private university of applied sciences was established, the "SRH Fachhoschule Hamm". The private university of applied sciences started with two study programs ending with degrees of Bachelor and Master of Science for logistic engineering. The "Klinik für Psychatrie und Psychotherapie of the Marienhospital" cooperates with the University Witten-Herdecke in education and science. During the summer 2009 another university of applied sciences was founded by the federal state NRW, named Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt. The University is divided in two departments, each with its own small Campus area, one in Hamm and another in Lippstadt.

Industry and economy

Schloss Heessen Schloss Heessen.jpg
Schloss Heessen

Major industrial branches are the coal-mining industry, steel industry, chemical industry and the car component supplier industry. In the last century there were four coal-mines within the urban district. Today the Bergwerk Ost in Herringen is the last operating coal mine with about 3,000 employees. Mannesmann Hoesch Präzisrohr, Westfälische Draht Industrie (WDI) and Böhler Thyssen Welding are the major representatives of the steel industry, the chemical industry is represented by DuPont in Uentrop and the car supplier industry by Hella KGaA Hueck & Co. factory 4 in Bockum-Hövel with about 1000 employees. The energy industry is represented by a RWE coal power plant and a further power plant (Trianel) in Uentrop. A new coal power plant is currently under construction. The THTR-300, also in Uentrop-Schmehhausen, was decommissioned in 1989. Alongside the A2, in the southern part of the urban district, a new business park inhabits the growing logistics business. Hamm is also known as "City of Law" (Stadt des Rechts) because of the greatest German regional appeal court (Oberlandesgericht), the local court (Amtsgericht), the industrial court (Arbeitgericht) and the industrial appeal court (Landesarbeitsgericht). The Chamber of Notaries and bar association of the regional appeal court Hamm and the courts are of greater influence on the appearance of the city. Several hospitals in the urban district are also important employers, for example the EVK Hamm has about 1000 employees.

Media

The only daily newspaper of Hamm printed there, is the "Westfälischer Anzeiger". At first, a weekly, newspaper in Hamm was the "Kreis Hammsches Wochenblatt" founded by Heinich Jakob Grote in 1822. Its name was changed in 1848 to "Westfälischer Anzeiger". A second newspaper appeared, founded by the Thiemann family, the "Westfälische Kurier". Both co-existed until the end of the Second World War. After the War both newspapers were combined and named "Westfälischer Anzeiger und Kurier". In the 1960s another name-change made the "Westfälischer Anzeiger". This newspaper is the mantle of several smaller regional newspapers, together they had a total 153,428 copies in 2004. In the 1970s the "Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" unsuccessfully tried to establish its own daily newspaper. Two weekly newspapers appear in Hamm the "Stadtanzeiger" from the "Westfälischer Anzeiger" with a total of 384.000 copies and the Sonntags-Rundblick by a medium-sized local company. Since 1990 the local radio station "Radio Lippewelle Hamm" is On Air and number one radio station of the local radios in NRW. On 3 October 1993 the "Offener Kanal Hamm" started broadcasting, it is a small TV project by people for the people, started through the federal state.

Culture

The Waldbühne Hamm-Heessen in Heessen is one of the most active open-air theatres in Germany. The Städtische Musikschule Hamm is one of the oldest music schools in Germany. Hamm also has several active choirs and a jazz club and has been the home of many bands.

Transport

Roads

Hamm is linked to three motorways. The Bundesautobahn 1 (BAB 1 or A1, Puttgarden-Saarbrücken) named Hansaline with two connections No.81 and 82., the (BAB 2 or A2, Oberhausen-Berlin) with three connections No.17,18 and 19 and the A445 (Hamm-Arnsberg) which is connected by the B63 until the planned construction between Hamm and Werl is completed. The Kamener Kreuz is situated in the southwest of Hamm. Two "federal roads" (Bundesstrassen) the B61 and B63 intersect in the city centre. Several state roads (Landesstrassen) are connecting Hamm with its neighbouring towns and municipalities.

Railways

Hamm central station Hamm-Bahnhof2.JPG
Hamm central station

Hamm has three stations, the main railway station Hamm (Westfalen) and two minor stations, one in Bockum-Hövel and the other one in Heessen. The main station is one of the biggest railway hubs in Germany, and connected with one of the largest marshalling yards in Europe, the latter now only partly operating. Notable is the railway station for its Art deco Gründerzeit inspired building styles. Hamm has been connected to the rail since 2 May 1847. Its huge railroad yard—Europe's biggest at the time [4] —was bombed repeatedly during World War II, [5] [6] as was the city itself (in December 1944 it was hit by eleven raids on one day). [4]

Buses

The city bus net Hamm is served by the "Stadtwerke Hamm", with 65 buses, and the "Verkehrsgesellschaft Breitenbach". A regional bus service is served by different companies and both nets serve the central bus station, which is situated in front of the main railway station in the centre of Hamm. Hamm is part of the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Ruhr-Lippe. About 12 million people are using the bus net every year, transported by 50 bus lines with 500 bus stops within the city.

Canal

Hamm is the end of the "Datteln-Hamm-Kanal", three ports are situated in the urban district. The city port, the canal end port Uentrop, and the port of "Gersteinwerk". The ports of Hamm are the second biggest canal port by freight transact, 1.4 million tons a year by ships and 0.5 million tons by train. The city port allows for ships up to 110 metres length 11.45 meters width and 2.7 metres draft. It is linked with the railway by a track to the near main railway station and the marshaling yard.

Datteln-Hamm-Kanal Karte des Datteln-Hamm-Kanals.png
Datteln-Hamm-Kanal

Airfield and Airports

Near city centre, in the meadows of the River Lippe, the sport airfield Hamm is situated. Its runway is 900 m long and 30 m wide. The airfield is operated by the Luftsportclub Hamm e. V.. Hamm is situated in the middle of a triangle of three smaller International Airports, in the north the Münster Osnabrück International Airport (FMO) in the south-west Dortmund Airport and in the east Paderborn Lippstadt Airport. The nearest large International Airport is Düsseldorf Airport.

Hamm light airfield Hamm Flughafen.jpg
Hamm light airfield

Notable citizens

Freemen

The city of Hamm has made since 1945 the following people freemen:

Related Research Articles

The Unna district is a Kreis (district) in central North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring authorities are the district of Coesfeld, the city of Hamm, the districts of Soest and Märkischer Kreis, the cities of Hagen and Dortmund, and the district of Recklinghausen.

Lippe (river) River in Germany

The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is a right tributary of the Rhine and 220.3 km (136.9 mi) in length with an elevation difference of 125 metres and a catchment area of 4.890 km². The source is located at the edge of the Teutoburg Forest in Bad Lippspringe close to the city of Paderborn. It runs westward through Paderborn, Lippstadt and then along the northern edge of the Ruhr area, parallel to the river Emscher and river Ruhr. The river finally enters the Rhine at Wesel.

Kamen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Kamen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Unna.

Fröndenberg Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Fröndenberg is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Ahlen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Ahlen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 30 km southeast of Münster. Ahlen is part of the District of Warendorf and is economically the most important town in that district. Ahlen is part of the larger Münster region, and of the historic Münsterland area. The nearby villages of Dolberg, Vorhelm and Tönnishäuschen are part of Ahlen, as well. The largest neighboring town is the city of Hamm to the southwest.

Ascheberg (Westfalen) Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Ascheberg is a municipality in the district of Coesfeld in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The neighbouring cities, towns and municipalities of Ascheberg are the city Münster, the town Drensteinfurt, the city Hamm, the town Werne (District Unna, the municipalities Nordkirchen and Senden

Bergkamen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Bergkamen is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated south of the river Lippe, approx. 15 km (9 mi) north-east of Dortmund and 15 km (9 mi) south-west of Hamm.

Selm Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Selm is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated approximately 20 kilometers north of Dortmund and 25 kilometers west of Hamm.

Bönen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Bönen is a municipality in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated between Hamm in the north-east, Kamen in the west and Unna in the south. Bönen consists of the districts Altenbögge-Bönen, Bramey-Lenningsen, Flierich, Nordbögge, Osterbönen and Westerbönen.

Hamm (Westf) Hauptbahnhof

Hamm (Westf) Hauptbahnhof is a railway station situated in the city of Hamm in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is notable for its station building inspired by art deco and Gründerzeit building styles. The station is one of the important InterCityExpress rail hubs in the eastern Ruhr area and is among the high-profile buildings of Hamm. Until the decline of rail freight after the Second World War, it featured one of Europe's largest marshalling yards.

Witten/Dortmund–Oberhausen/Duisburg railway

The Witten/Dortmund, Oberhausen/Duisburg railway is one of the most important railways in Germany. It is the main axis of long distance and regional rail transport on the east–west axis of the Ruhr and is served by Intercity-Express, InterCity, Regional-Express, Regionalbahn and S-Bahn trains.

Mülheim (Ruhr) Hauptbahnhof

Mülheim (Ruhr) Hauptbahnhof is a railway station for the city of Mülheim in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It was renamed as a Hauptbahnhof in 1974 at the time of the rebuilding of the Dortmund–Duisburg line as part of the establishment of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station.

Duisburg–Dortmund railway Major railway line in Germany

The Duisburg-Dortmund Railway is an important and historically significant railway in Germany. It is a major axis for long distance and regional passenger freight transport in the northern Ruhr. It is served by Intercity-Express, InterCity, Regional-Express, Regionalbahn and S-Bahn trains. It includes the central stations of Duisburg, Oberhausen, Gelsenkirchen, Dortmund and Wanne-Eickel and the regionally important stations of Essen-Altenessen and Herne. It is the middle section of the Cologne-Minden trunk line from Cologne-Deutz to Minden. It was opened in 1847 and has been modernised and developed several times since then. Today, it has two to four tracks and is electrified and classified as a main line.

Elberfeld–Dortmund railway Railway line

The Elberfeld–Dortmund railway is a major railway in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is part of a major axis for long distance and regional rail services between Wuppertal and Cologne, and is served by Intercity Express, InterCity, Regional Express, Regionalbahn and S-Bahn trains.

Welver–Sterkrade railway

The Welver–Sterkrade railway is a former through railway line from the Westphalian town of Welver to Sterkrade in the western Ruhr region in Germany, which is now broken into four disconnected sections. Because its route ran along the Emscher river it was known as the Westphalian Emscher Valley Railway.

Horrem station

Horrem station is a station in the Kerpen district of Horrem in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is a railway junction of the Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway and the Erft Railway. The triangular station of Horrem is served by regional services and by S-Bahn trains of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn. Long-distance trains run through on the high-speed line without stopping. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station.

Unna station

Unna station is the main passenger station in the Westphalian city of Unna in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The other stations in the city that are served by regular passenger services are Unna-Königsborn, Unna West, Massen, Lünern and Hemmerde.

Osterath–Dortmund Süd railway

The Osterath–Dortmund-Süd railway is a historically significant line in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Parts of it are closed, much of it is now used for freight only, but several sections are still used for Regional-Express, Regionalbahn or Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn services.

The University hospitals of the Ruhr University of Bochum, German Universitätsklinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, abbreviated UK RUB is a syndicate of six university hospitals and associated facilities of the Ruhr University of Bochum. Founded in 2008 by the merger of formally independent hospitals the UK RUB is now a major provider of health in the Ruhr Metropolitan Region treating over 400,000 patients per year with a strong commitment to research and teaching.

The Bochum–Essen/Oberhausen railway was built by the Bergisch-Märkische Railway Company to the north of its main line through the central Ruhr to tap traffic from mines and factories in the northern Ruhr region, which is now in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

References

  1. Oberbürgermeisterstichwahl Stadt Hamm, September 2020
  2. "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2020" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW . Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  3. "Hamms Partnerstädte". hamm.de (in German). Hamm. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  4. 1 2 Blank, Ralf; Echternkamp, Jörg; Fings, Karola; Jürgen Förster; Winfried Heinemann; Tobias Jersak; Armin Nolzen (3 July 2008). Germany and the Second World War: Volume IX/I: German Wartime Society 1939-1945: Politicization, Disintegration, and the Struggle for Survival. Oxford UP. p. 460. ISBN   9780191608605.
  5. Russell, Edward T. (1999). The U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II: Leaping the Atlantic Wall : Army Air Forces Campaigns in Western Europe, 1942-1945. Government Printing Office. p. 26. ISBN   9780160613845.
  6. Air interdiction in World War II Korea and Vietnam... DIANE. p. 19. ISBN   9781428993389.