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Ibrium (2322-2302 BC), also spelt Ebrium, was the vizier of Ebla for king Irkab-Damu and his successor Isar-Damu.

Ibrium is attested to have campaigned against the city of Abarsal during the time of vizier Arrukum. [1] [2] He took office after Arrukum during the last two years of Irkab-Damu's reign and continued to hold office during the reign of Isar-Damu. Ibrium kept his position for about 20 years and was succeeded by his son Ibbi-Sipish, thus establishing a parallel dynasty of viziers next to the royal family. [1]

Ibrium waged a war against Armi in his ninth year as vizier. The Ebla tablets mention that the battle happened near a town called Batin (a location possibly located in modern northeastern Aleppo), and that a messenger arrived in Ebla with news about the defeating of Armi. [3] He also conducted several campaigns against rebellious vassals and concluded a peace and trading treaty with Abarsal. [4]

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Ebla Ancient Syrian city

Ebla was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. Ebla was an important center throughout the 3rd millennium BC and in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Its discovery proved the Levant was a center of ancient, centralized civilization equal to Egypt and Mesopotamia and ruled out the view that the latter two were the only important centers in the Near East during the Early Bronze Age. The first Eblaite kingdom has been described as the first recorded world power.

Mari, Syria Ancient Sumerian and Amorite city

Mari was an ancient Semitic city-state in modern-day Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located 11 kilometers north-west of Abu Kamal on the Euphrates river western bank, some 120 kilometers southeast of Deir ez-Zor. It flourished as a trade center and hegemonic state between 2900 BC and 1759 BC. As a purposely-built city, the existence of Mari was related to its position in the middle of the Euphrates trade routes; this position made it an intermediary between Sumer in the south and the Eblaite kingdom and the Levant in the west.

Irkab-Damu, was the king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom, whose era saw Ebla's turning into the dominant power in the Levant.

Ibbi-Sipish or Ibbi-Zikir was the vizier of Ebla for king Ishar-Damu for 17 years. He was the son of his predecessor, Ibrium, who had been Ishar-Damu's vizier for 15 years.

Tell Brak Archaeological site in Syria

Tell Brak was an ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate. The city's original name is unknown. During the second half of the third millennium BC, the city was known as Nagar and later on, Nawar.

Damu is a god of vegetation and rebirth in Sumerian mythology.


Hamazi or Khamazi was an ancient kingdom or city-state of some importance that reached its peak c. 2500–2400 BC. Its exact location is unknown, but is thought to have been located in the western Zagros mountains roughly between Elam and Assyria, possibly near Nuzi or modern Hamadan.

Tudiya or Tudia was according to the Assyrian King List (AKL) the first Assyrian monarch, ruling in Assyria's early period, though he is not attested in any known contemporary artefacts. He is listed among the “seventeen kings who lived in tents.” His existence is unconfirmed archaeologically and uncorroborated by any other source. According to the list, Tudiya was succeeded by Adamu.

Armi, was an important Bronze Age city-kingdom during the late third millennium BC located in northern Syria, or in southern Anatolia, Turkey, at the region of Cilicia.

Hassum was a Hurrian city-state, located in southern Turkey most probably on the Euphrates river north of Carchemish.

Armani (kingdom)

Armani, was an ancient kingdom mentioned by Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin of Akkad as stretching from Ibla to Bit-Nanib; its location is heavily debated, and it continued to be mentioned in later Assyrian inscriptions.

Vizier, is the title used by modern scholars to indicate the head of the administration in the first Eblaite kingdom. The title holder held the highest position after the king and controlled the army. During the reign of king Isar-Damu, the office of vizier became hereditary.

Iblul-Il, was the most energetic king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom, noted for his extensive campaigns in the middle Euphrates valley against the Eblaites, and in the upper Tigris region against various opponents, which asserted the Mariote supremacy in the Syrian north.

Kun-Damu was a king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom ruling c. 2400 BC. The king's name is translated as "Arise, O Damu". Kun-Damu is attested in the archives of Ebla dated two generations after his reign. According to Alfonso Archi, he was a contemporary of Saʿumu of Mari. The archives of Ebla records the defeat of Mari in the 25th century BC, and based on the estimations for his reign, Kun-Damu might be the Eblaite king who inflicted this defeat upon Mari. Aleppo might have came under the rule of Ebla during his reign. Following his death, he was deified and his cult was attested in Ebla for at least 30 years after his reign.

Ishtup-Ishar (Ištup-Išar) was a king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom who reigned c. 2400 BC. The king's name was traditionally read as Išhtup-šar, with šar being a common divine element in personal names attested in the region. However, the king's name is read as Ishtup-Ishar by Alfonso Archi, Ishar being an important justice deity worshiped in Mari and Ebla.

Isar-Damu, was the king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom. Isar-Damu fought a long war with Mari which ended in Eblaite victory; he was probably the last king of the first kingdom.

Sagisu was a king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom ruling c. 2680 BC. The king's name is translated as "DN has killed".

Abarsal was a city-state of Mesopotamia in the area of the Euphrates. Very litte is known of the history of the town and the site is unidentified at the moment. It could be the city of Aburru mentioned in various texts of the tablets of Mari, which was located south of Emar to Qalat Gabir. A second theory says that could be Apishal.

Igrish-Halam King of Ebla

Igrish-Halam or Igriš-Halab, was a king of the ancient city state of Ebla. His name means "(The god of) Halab has driven away ", hence, the name might be a commemoration of an Eblaite victory that led to the incorporation of lands beyond the city of Halab. His reign was characterized by an Eblaite weakness, and tribute paying to the kingdom of Mari, with whom Ebla fought a long war. His battle with Iblul-Il of Mari at Sahiri was instrumental in this tribute payment.

Ib'al was the name used by Ebla in the 24th century BC to indicate a confederation of tribes occupying the steppic region south of Ebla; the region included small villages and towns. Qatna could have been one of the urban centers in the region.


  1. 1 2 Mario Liverani (4 December 2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 207. ISBN   9781134750917.
  2. Joan Aruz,Ronald Wallenfels (2003). Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. p. 462.
  3. Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 484. ISBN   9783447061759.
  4. Stephen C. Neff (2014). Justice Among Nations. p. 14. ISBN   9780674726543.