|Purpose||Develop and promote the Code of Ethics for professional accountants and the International Independence Standards that apply to audit and assurance engagements.|
|International Federation of Accountants|
The International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA) develops and promotes the International Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (including International Independence Standards). The IESBA also supports debate on issues related to accounting ethics and auditor independence.
The IESBA is an independent global standard-setting board. The IESBA’s mission is to serve the public interest by setting ethics standards, including auditor independence requirements, which seek to raise the bar for ethical conduct and practice for all professional accountants.
The IESBA sets its standards in the public interest with advice from the IESBA Consultative Advisory Group (CAG) and under the oversight of the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB).
The IESBA is dedicated to operating as transparent as possible. IESBA meetings are open to the public. The agendas, agenda papers, meeting highlights and audio recordings for each meeting are posted on the IESBA's website. In addition, the IESBA's website includes information about the IESBA's Strategy and Work Plan and its various projects and initiatives. The IESBA's website also includes resources, including Staff Q&As and the IESBA eCode to help support the adoption and implementation of the IESBA Code.
In 2018, the IESBA issued a revised and restructured Code which came into effect in June 2019. The revised and restructured Code includes many substantive revisions, including in relation to non-compliance with laws and regulations (NOCLAR). The 2018 version of the Code makes it clear that professional accountants, in whatever capacity they are engaged, cannot turn a blind eye to NOCLAR. The provisions in the Code, including NOCLAR guide ethical behavior and help professional accountants uphold their responsibility to act in the public interest. The IESBA Code also includes a principles-based definition of what constitutes a network. The definition covers the way a group of companies operate and present themselves, and is consistent with the Statutory Audit Directive.
The IESBA periodically issues revisions to the IESBA Code. In 2019, the IESBA issued revisions to Part 4B of the IESBA Code to Reflect Terms and Concepts Used in ISAE 3000 (Revised).Part 4B of the Code comprises the independence standards for assurance engagements other than audit and review engagements.
Convergence of international and national ethical standards is a high priority for the IESBA. Accordingly, IESBA members, Technical Advisors and Staff participate in various stakeholder outreach meetings and events to promote awareness and adoption of the IESBA Code.
IFAC supports and promotes the development, adoption, and implementation of high-quality international standards, including the Code. IFAC periodically issues a Global Status Report on the adoption of international standards, including the IESBA Code. The most recent Global Status Report was issued in October 2019.
Professional accountancy organizations who are members the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), such as Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), the Association of International Certified Professional Accountants (AICPA), the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) and Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) bodies are required to adopt the IESBA Code of Ethics.
In addition, the Forum of Firms which is an independent association of international networks of firms that perform transnational audits commits to having policies and methodologies that conform to the IESBA Code and national codes of ethics.
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right and wrong and in applying that understanding to their decisions. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics, codes of conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the national professional organization of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in the United States, with more than 428,000 members in 130 countries in business and industry, public practice, government, education, student affiliates and international associates. Founded in 1887 as American Association of Public Accountants (AAPA), the organization sets ethical standards for the profession and U.S. auditing standards for audits of private companies, non-profit organizations, federal, state and local governments. It also develops and grades the Uniform CPA Examination. The AICPA maintains offices in New York City; Washington, DC; Durham, NC; and Ewing, NJ.
The International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was founded in June 1973 in London at the initiative of Sir Henry Benson, former president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. The IASC was created by national accountancy bodies from a number of countries with a view to harmonizing the international diversity of company reporting practices. Between its founding in 1973 and its dissolution in 2001, it developed a set of International Accounting Standards (IAS) that gradually acquired a degree of acceptance in countries around the world. Although the IASC came to include some organizations representing preparers and users of financial statements, it largely remained an initiative of the accountancy profession. On 1 April 2001, it was replaced by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), an independent standard-setting body. The IASB adopted the extant corpus of IAS which it continued to develop as International Financial Reporting Standards.
Founded in 1904, the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants(ACCA) is the global professional accounting body offering the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification (ACCA). ACCA is the Global Chartered Accountants' body. ACCA's headquarters are in London with principal administrative office in Glasgow. ACCA works through a network of over 104 offices and centres in 52 countries - with 323 Approved Learning Partners (ALP) and more than 7,300 Approved Employers worldwide, who provide employee development. The ACCA also works in India, China and Pakistan. ACCA India has organized a nationwide 'Financial Literacy Drive' with the collaboration of Indian Ministries of Finance and Education.
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is the first and largest professional accounting body of India under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India. It was established on 1 July 1949 as a statutory body under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 enacted by the Parliament to contribute in Accounting and Commerce Education in India following the National Education Policy 2020 of India. ICAI is the second largest professional accounting body in the world in terms of membership.
The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) is an independent regulator in the UK and Ireland, responsible for regulating auditors, accountants and actuaries, and setting the UK's Corporate Governance and Stewardship Codes. The FRC seeks to promote transparency and integrity in business by aiming its work at investors and others who rely on company reports, audits and high-quality risk management.
International Standards on Auditing (ISA) are professional standards for the auditing of financial information. These standards are issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) through the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB). According to Olung M, ISA guides the auditor to add value to the assignment hence building confidence of investors.
The Institute of Public Accountants (IPA) is one of the three legally recognised professional bodies for accountants in Australia. The IPA represents more than 40,000 members and students working in industry, commerce, government, academia and professional practice.
The International Accounting Education Standards Board (IAESB) is an independent organisation within the fold of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). The board develops guidance to improve standards of education in accountancy. The two main areas of focus are the key elements of accreditation and the requirements of accountants for continuing professional education. The board also sponsors studies or papers about accounting education that promote discussion and debate on accounting education and development issues.
Auditor independence refers to the independence of the internal auditor or of the external auditor from parties that may have a financial interest in the business being audited. Independence requires integrity and an objective approach to the audit process. The concept requires the auditor to carry out his or her work freely and in an objective manner.
Accounting ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics and is part of business ethics and human ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to accountancy. It is an example of professional ethics. Accounting was introduced by Luca Pacioli, and later expanded by government groups, professional organizations, and independent companies. Ethics are taught in accounting courses at higher education institutions as well as by companies training accountants and auditors.
The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is the global advocacy organization for the accountancy profession the accountancy profession; mainly for the financial accounting and auditing professions. Founded in 1977, IFAC has more than 175 members and associates in more than 130 countries and jurisdictions, representing more than 3 million accountants employed in public practice, industry and commerce, government, and academe. The organization supports the development, adoption, and implementation of international standards for accounting education, ethics, and the public sector as well as audit and assurance. It supports four independent standard-setting boards, which establish international standards on ethics, auditing and assurance, accounting education, and public sector accounting. It also issues guidance to encourage high-quality performance by professional accountants in small and medium business accounting practices.
The Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB) is an international body that oversees the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and seeks to improve the quality and public interest focus of the IFAC standards in the areas of audit, education, and ethics.
The Accounting Professional & Ethical Standards Board (APESB) is an independent, national body that sets out the code of ethics and professional standards with which accounting professionals who are members of CPA Australia, Institute of Chartered Accountants or Institute of Public Accountants must comply.
The National Board of Accountants and Auditors (NBAA) is an accounting professional and regulatory body operating under the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, the sole body to certify accountants in Tanzania. It began operating on 15 January 1973.
The Institute of Authorized Chartered Auditors of Albania is a professional body that regulates the accountancy industry in Albania.
The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct is a collection of codified statements issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants that outline a CPA's ethical and professional responsibilities. The code establishes standards for auditor independence, integrity and objectivity, responsibilities to clients and colleagues and acts discreditable to the accounting profession. The AICPA is responsible for drafting, revising and reissuing the code annually, on June 1. The current Code is available at the AICPA Web site. For older versions of the Code, see the links below.
The Forum of Firms is an association of international networks of accounting firms that perform transnational audits.