Lancashire Hussars

Last updated

Lancashire Hussars
Lancashire Hussars Badge.jpg
Badge of the Lancashire Hussars
Active1798–1969
CountryUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain (1798–1800)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom (1801–1969)
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Type Yeomanry
SizeRegiment
Part of Royal Armoured Corps
Royal Artillery
Battle honours Second World War: No battle honours were awarded. It is tradition within artillery units that the Regiment's guns represent its colours and battle honours.

The Lancashire Hussars was a British Army unit originally formed in 1798. It saw action in the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1969, the regiment reduced to a cadre and the Yeomanry lineage discontinued.

Contents

History

Formation and early history

The regiment was originally formed in 1798 as independent troops. [1] It became the Lancashire Yeomanry Cavalry in 1828. [1] After being disbanded in 1832, it was re-formed as the Lancashire Hussars in 1848. It went on to become the Lancashire Hussars Imperial Yeomanry in 1901 and the Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry in 1908. [1] [2]

Second Boer War

On 13 December 1899, the decision to allow volunteer forces serve in the Second Boer War was made. Due to the string of defeats during Black Week in December 1899, the British government realised they were going to need more troops than just the regular army, thus issuing a Royal Warrant on 24 December 1899. This warrant officially created the Imperial Yeomanry. The Royal Warrant asked standing Yeomanry regiments to provide service companies of approximately 115 men each. In addition to this, many British citizens (usually mid-upper class) volunteered to join the new regiment. Together with the Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry the regiment co-sponsored the 23rd and 32nd (Lancashire) Companies, and the Hussars also sponsored the 77th (Manchester) Company, which served in the 8th Battalion, IY. [3]

The Imperial Yeomanry was equipped and trained as Mounted infantry. This experiment was considered a success, and all the existing Yeomanry regiments were converted into IY in 1901, the Hussars becoming the Lancashire Hussars Imperial Yeomanry. When the Yeomanry were subsumed into the Territorial Force in 1908, the 'Imperial' part of the title was dropped. The regiment was based at Prince Albert Road in Liverpool at this time (since demolished). [4]

First World War

In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 ( 7 Edw. 7, c.9) which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country. However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split in August and September 1914 into 1st Line (liable for overseas service) and 2nd Line (home service for those unable or unwilling to serve overseas) units. Later, a 3rd Line was formed to act as a reserve, providing trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line regiments. [5]

1/1st Lancashire Hussars

The 1/1st was formed in Liverpool in August 1914 and attached to the Welsh Border Mounted Brigade. [6] In 1915, the regiment was split up, the regimental headquarters and B Squadron joining the 31st Division and, after moving to France, being briefly attached to the 2nd Indian Cavalry Division. The rest of the regiment was attached to 35th Division, (C Squadron) and 30th Division, (D Squadron). [6]

The regiment was re-formed in May 1916 to form the VIII Corps Cavalry Regiment. [6] In July 1917, the regiment was dismounted and dispatched for training as infantry. This was completed in September 1917, when the men joined a battalion of the King's, which was redesignated as the 18th (Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry) Battalion, the King's (Liverpool) Regiment. [6]

2/1st Lancashire Hussars

The 2nd line regiment was formed in September 1914. By July 1915, it was under the command of the 2/1st Western Mounted Brigade (along with 2/1st Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry, [7] and the 2/1st Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry [8] ) and in March 1916 was at Cupar, Fife. [9] On 31 March 1916, the remaining Mounted Brigades were numbered in a single sequence and the brigade became 21st Mounted Brigade, still at Cupar under Scottish Command. [10]

In July 1916 there was a major reorganisation of 2nd line yeomanry units in the UK. All but 12 regiments were converted to cyclists [10] and as a consequence the regiment was dismounted and the brigade converted to 14th Cyclist Brigade. Further reorganisation in October and November 1916 saw the brigade redesignated as 10th Cyclist Brigade in October 1916, still at Cupar. [11] The regiment moved to St Andrews in July 1917. [9]

By January 1918, 10th Cyclist Brigade had moved to Lincolnshire with the regiment at Skegness. [9] About May 1918 the Brigade moved to Ireland [11] and the regiment was stationed at Bandon and Buttevant, County Cork. There were no further changes before the end of the war. [9]

3/1st Lancashire Hussars

The 3rd Line regiment was formed in 1915 and in the summer it was affiliated to a Reserve Cavalry Regiment at The Curragh. In the summer of 1916 it was affiliated to the 10th Reserve Cavalry Regiment, also at The Curragh. It was absorbed by the 2nd Reserve Cavalry Regiment, still at The Curragh, in early 1917. By 1918 it had left the 2nd Reserve Cavalry Regiment when the 1st Line regiment was converted to infantry and joined 5th (Reserve) Battalion of the King's (Liverpool Regiment) at Oswestry. [12]

Inter-War Years

In 1920, in common with many other Yeomanry regiments, the Lancashire Hussars were converted to a Royal Field Artillery (RFA) role and was redesignated as the 2nd (Lancashire) Army Brigade, RFA, at Manchester. In 1921, it was redesignated as the 106th (Lancashire Yeomanry) Brigade, RFA, and then when the RFA was subsumed into the Royal Artillery (RA) in 1924, as the 106th (Lancashire Yeomanry) Field Brigade, RA, with HQ returning to Liverpool. It served as 'Army Troops' in 55th (West Lancashire) Divisional Area. In 1938 it was retitled as the 106th (Lancashire Yeomanry) Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery. [1] [2] [13] [14]

Second World War

106th (Lancashire Hussars) Regiment, RHA

At the start of the Second World War, the hussars comprised 423rd and 424th Batteries, based in Liverpool. [1] By November 1939, it was part of the UK-based 1st Cavalry Division and was equipped with 4.5 inch Howitzers (424 Bty) and 18 pdr Field Guns (423 Bty). In January 1940, the regiment moved to Palestine. [1] [15]

It moved to North Africa in August 1940, by which time 424 Bty had become No. 1 and No. 2 Batteries (Anti-tank) and 423 Bty had become No. 3 and No. 4 Batteries (Anti-aircraft), known as 1/106 Bty, 1/102, Bty, etc. The former two were equipped with Bofors 37 mm anti-tank guns on Portees, and the latter two with captured Italian 20mm Breda Model 35 AA/AT guns. Each new battery consisted of only two troops, A and B (No. 1 Bty), C and D (No. 2 Bty), E and F (No. 3 Bty) and G and H (No.4 Bty). It served with the 7th Armoured Division during many of the early battles in North Africa. [1]

At the end of February 1941, the regiment was advised that it was to become a Light Anti Aircraft (L.A.A) regiment of just three batteries (comprising 36 x 20mm Breda guns [16] ) and was then later known as 106th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RA (Lancashire Hussars). [2] [13] In March 1941, the regiment deployed to Greece via Operation Lustre as part of W Force. Upon disembarking at Piraeus, the regiment deployed to Glyfada for 2 weeks training. [17] Thereafter, the regiment was sent to defend the airstrip at Larissa. [18] The German advance forced the British to retreat to the town of Nauplion, where the 106th were the only AA defence. [19] After destroying their Breda guns, the regiment was evacuated to Crete on board HMS Calcutta. [20] Most of the regiment ended the campaign in the defence of Suda Bay in the Battle of Crete, becoming prisoners of war in the process. It was placed in suspended animation in July the same year, with many of its men going to reinforce the 102nd (Northumberland Hussars) Regiment RA, which were being strengthened and re-equipped after being evacuated from Greece and Crete. [1] [13]

149th (Lancashire Hussars) Regiment, RHA

The regiment was converted to a field regiment on 1 June 1940. It was sent to Egypt in March 1941 and arrived there on 20 June 1941. It was converted to 149th Anti-Tank Regiment on 1 July 1941 at Mena Camp with 432nd, 433rd, ‘X’/432nd, and ‘Z’/433rd Batteries and 36 2-pounders. It was under command of BTE from July to November 1941. It entered Tobruk in November 1941 and fought at El Duda during the breakout through 9 December. It then served with 8th Army in the desert until 12 July 1942. In January 1942, Z/433rd Battery was retitled 513th Anti-Tank Battery. The regiment was converted to a field regiment on 30 May 1942 and X/432nd Battery was interspersed throughout the regiment. It was reconverted to an anti-tank regiment on 4 July 1942. It came under command of 5th Indian Infantry Division in Egypt from 12 July until 9 September 1942. ‘S’ Anti-Tank Battery joined on 24 September 1942. The regiment served under command of 4th Indian Infantry Division from 9 September 1942 until 31 August 1945. It was in North Africa until 8 September 1943, in Palestine until 16 October 1943, in Syria until 9 November 1943, in Egypt until 2 December 1943, at sea until 9 December 1943, in Italy until 10 December 1944 and then Greece.

‘S’ Battery was numbered 318th on 1 May 1943 and 320th Battery joined on being formed on 10 May 1943. 318th Battery left on 26 May 1943.

Postwar

When the TA was re-formed in 1947, the regiment was renamed the 306th (Lancashire Hussars) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RA, before being amalgamated with the 390th (King's Own) LAA Regiment, RA in 1950. [1] [2] [13]

Later, in 1956, it became 'P' (Lancashire Hussars) Battery of 287th (1st West Lancashire) Medium Regiment, RA and, by 1967, it was just 'A' Troop (Lancashire Hussars), P (1st West Lancashire) Battery, The West Lancashire Regiment, RA (Territorial). [1] In 1969, the regiment was reduced to a cadre (absorbed into 208 (3rd West Lancashire) Battery of 103 (Lancashire Artillery Volunteers) Regiment Royal Artillery in 1973) and the Yeomanry lineage discontinued. [1] [2] [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bedfordshire Yeomanry Military unit

The Bedfordshire Yeomanry was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army. Serving intermittently between 1797 and 1827, it was re-raised in 1901 for the Second Boer War. It participated in the First World War before being converted to an artillery regiment. It served in the Second World War. Its lineage was maintained by 201 Battery, 100th (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery until that unit was placed in suspended animation in 2014.

Norfolk Yeomanry British Territorial Volunteer Yeomanry regiment

The Norfolk Yeomanry was a volunteer cavalry (Yeomanry) regiment of Britain's Territorial Army accepted onto the establishment of the British Army in 1794. After seeing action in the Second Boer War, it served dismounted at Gallipoli, in Palestine and on the Western Front during the First World War. Between the wars it converted to the Royal Artillery (TA), and served as an anti-tank regiment in France, the Western Desert, Italy and North West Europe during the Second World War. After the war it served as a TA air defence unit and then as an Army Air Corps unit.

Northumberland Hussars Military unit

The Northumberland Hussars was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army, transferred to the Royal Artillery for the duration of the Second World War. It was disbanded as an independent Territorial Army unit in 1967, a time when the strength of the Territorial Army was greatly reduced. The regiment's name lives on in the title of the command and support squadron of the Queen's Own Yeomanry (QOY), a Formation Reconnaissance Regiment based in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Queens Own Oxfordshire Hussars Military unit

The Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars was the designated name of a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army formed in 1794. It saw service in the Second Boer War with 40 and 59 Companies of the Imperial Yeomanry and also served in Belgium and France during the Great War. In 1922, the regiment became part of the Royal Artillery. The lineage is maintained by 142 Vehicle Squadron Royal Logistic Corps.

Duke of Lancasters Own Yeomanry Military unit

The Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry (DLOY) was an auxiliary unit of the British Army from 1798 to 1992. Originally raised as part-time cavalry for home defence and internal security, the regiment sent Mounted infantry to serve in the Second Boer War. During World War I it carried out mounted duties in Egypt and Palestine and on the Western Front. By 1917 the reserve units at home had become cyclists and the regiment serving on the Western Front joined an infantry battalion, seeing action at the Battle of Passchendaele, against the German Spring Offensive and in the final Allied Hundred Days Offensive. At the beginning of World War II the regiment gave up its horses and formed two regiments of medium artillery, which served in the Middle East, Italy and North West Europe. Postwar it became an armoured unit. Today its lineage is maintained by B Squadron, the Queen's Own Yeomanry.

Queens Own Worcestershire Hussars Military unit

The Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army. First raised in 1794, it participated in the Second Boer War and World War I as horsed cavalry before being converted to an anti-tank regiment of the Royal Artillery for service in World War II. In 1956 it was amalgamated with the Warwickshire Yeomanry to form the Queen's Own Warwickshire and Worcestershire Yeomanry. The lineage is maintained by B Squadron, part of The Royal Yeomanry.

South Nottinghamshire Hussars Military unit

The South Nottinghamshire Hussars is a unit of the British Army formed as volunteer cavalry in 1794. Converted to artillery in 1922, it presently forms part of 103 Regiment, Royal Artillery.

Suffolk Yeomanry Military unit

The Duke of Yorks Own Loyal Suffolk Hussars was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army. Originally formed as a volunteer cavalry force in 1793, it fought in the Second Boer war as part of the Imperial Yeomanry. In the World War I the regiment fought at Gallipoli, in Palestine and on the Western Front. The unit was subsequently converted into a Royal Artillery unit, serving in the anti-tank role North Africa, Italy and France during World War II. The lineage is maintained by No. 677 Squadron AAC.

The Denbighshire Hussars was a Welsh Yeomanry regiment of the British Army formed in 1794. It saw service in the First World War before being converted into a unit of the Royal Artillery. The lineage has been continued by 398 Squadron, Royal Logistic Corps.

The Sussex Yeomanry is a yeomanry regiment of the British Army dating from 1794. It was initially formed when there was a threat of French invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. After being reformed in the Second Boer War, it served in the First World War and the Second World War, when it served in the East African Campaign and the Siege of Tobruk. The lineage is maintained by 1 Field Troop, 579 Field Squadron (EOD), part of 101 (London) Engineer Regiment (Volunteers).

Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Military unit

The Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry is an Operational Hygiene Squadron of the Royal Logistic Corps, originally formed as cavalry in 1794, and has also served in artillery and signals roles. The lineage is continued by 710 Operational Hygiene Squadron, Royal Logistic Corps.

Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry Military unit

The Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry was a Yeomanry Cavalry regiment of the British Army with its origins in 1798. The regiment provided troops for the Imperial Yeomanry during the Second Boer War and served on the Western Front in World War I, latterly as infantry. The regiment converted to artillery in 1920 and served as such in the early years of World War II, before becoming part of the Chindits in Burma. Postwar it served as a gunner regiment until 1971 when the title disappeared.

Glamorgan Yeomanry Military unit

The Glamorgan Yeomanry was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army originally raised in the late eighteenth century as a result of concern over the threat of invasion by the French. It was re-raised in the Second Boer War and saw service in both World War I and World War II. The lineage is maintained by C Troop, 211 Battery, 104th Regiment Royal Artillery.

Pembroke Yeomanry Military unit

The Pembroke Yeomanry was a regiment of the British Army formed in 1794. It saw action in the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. The lineage is maintained by 224 Transport Squadron, part of 157 (Welsh) Regiment RLC.

Hampshire Yeomanry Military unit

The Hampshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry cavalry regiment formed by amalgamating older units raised between 1794 and 1803 during the French Revolutionary Wars. It served in a mounted role in the Second Boer War and World War I, and in the air defence role during and after World War II. The lineage is continued by 295 Battery and 457 Battery, batteries of 106 (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery, part of the Army Reserve.

Hertfordshire Yeomanry Military unit

The Hertfordshire Yeomanry was a Yeomanry Cavalry regiment of the British Army that could trace its formation to the late 18th century. First seeing mounted service in the Second Boer War and World War I, it subsequently converted to artillery. Three regiments saw service in World War II, one of which was captured at the fall of Singapore. It continued through various postwar amalgamations and its lineage was maintained by 201 Battery, 100th (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery until that unit was placed in suspended animation in 2014.

Queens Own Dorset Yeomanry Military unit

The Queen's Own Dorset Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the British Army founded in 1794 as the Dorsetshire Regiment of Volunteer Yeomanry Cavalry in response to the growing threat of invasion during the Napoleonic wars. It gained its first royal association in 1833 as The Princess Victoria's Regiment of Dorset Yeomanry Cavalry, and its second, in 1843, as the Queen's Own Regiment of Dorset Yeomanry Cavalry.

The West Somerset Yeomanry was a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army. First raised in 1794, it participated in the Second Boer War and World War I before being converted to an artillery regiment. It served in World War II. Post-war it was gradually reduced in strength until the yeomanry lineage of the successor unit was discontinued on 9 November 1988.

The Berkshire Royal Horse Artillery was a Territorial Force Royal Horse Artillery battery that was formed in Berkshire in 1908. It saw active service during the First World War in the Middle East, notably at Aden and in particular in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, from 1915 to 1918. A second line battery, 2/1st Berkshire RHA, served on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918 as part of an Army Field Artillery Brigade. After the Armistice, it was reconstituted as a Royal Field Artillery battery of the Territorial Army (TA), later being expanded into a full heavy anti-aircraft (HAA) regiment that served during World War II in the Battle of Britain and Blitz, in the assault landings in North Africa, Sicily and Italy. Postwar, it continued in the TA until 1968.

3rd West Lancashire Artillery Military unit

The 3rd West Lancashire Artillery was a volunteer unit of Britain's Territorial Force recruited from Liverpool that saw action during the First World War, distinguishing itself at the Battle of the Avre. During the Second World War, it served in the air defence and medium artillery roles at home and in the Far East. Its successor unit continues to serve as a battery in the modern Army Reserve.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "The Lancashire Hussars". Ian A. Patterson. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Lancashire Hussars at Regiments.org". Archived from the original on 26 December 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2005.
  3. "Boer War Notes" . Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  4. "Lancashire Hussars 1908–1914". Army Service Numbers. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  5. Rinaldi 2008 , p. 35
  6. 1 2 3 4 Baker, Chris. "The Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  7. Baker, Chris. "The Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  8. Baker, Chris. "The Westmorland & Cumberland Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  9. 1 2 3 4 James 1978 , p. 21
  10. 1 2 James 1978 , p. 36
  11. 1 2 James 1978 , pp. 21, 22, 30
  12. James 1978 , pp. 21–22
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 Litchfield, pp. 129–30.
  14. Titles and Designation, 1927.
  15. Joslen, pp. 33, 473.
  16. Operation Lustre aid to Greece – file ref WO 106/3132
  17. Arthur 2003 , p. 16
  18. Arthur 2003 , p. 20
  19. Arthur 2003 , p. 49
  20. Arthur 2003 , p. 54

Bibliography