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The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages. Written by authors from all over the world, it comprises more than 36,000 articles in 9 volumes. Historically the works range from the Late Antiquity to about 1500, covering the Byzantine Empire and the Arab world .
The first six volumes were published by Artemis (later Artemis & Winkler), Munich and Zürich; volumes seven through nine by LexMA, Munich. In 2000, an electronic (standalone) edition of the Lexikon was published on CD-ROM by Brepols.
The first volume was widely praised upon publication; G.A. Holmes, in The English Historical Review , foresaw that the entire encyclopedia would be "a valuable reference work of a kind which medievalists hitherto lacked."H. Chadwick, in The Journal of Theological Studies , called the lexicon "a necessary and valuable work of reference." Its coverage of subjects related to Islam was praised, though the same reviewer called the coverage of topics related to Judaism "comparatively modest."
The CD-ROM edition was chosen as one of the "Selected Reference Books of 2001-2002" by College & Research Libraries .
Year 1195 (MCXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Carmina Burana is a manuscript of 254 poems and dramatic texts mostly from the 11th or 12th century, although some are from the 13th century. The pieces are mostly bawdy, irreverent, and satirical. They were written principally in Medieval Latin, a few in Middle High German and old Arpitan. Some are macaronic, a mixture of Latin and German or French vernacular.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 22-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism. It covers diverse areas of the Jewish world and civilization, including Jewish history of all eras, culture, holidays, language, scripture, and religious teachings. As of 2010, it had been published in two editions accompanied by a few revisions.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill. It is considered to be the standard reference work in the field of Islamic studies. The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007.
An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed. Often, large dictionaries, such as the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster's, will contain some etymological information, without aspiring to focus on etymology.
A Latin Dictionary is a popular English-language lexicographical work of the Latin language, published by Harper and Brothers of New York in 1879 and printed simultaneously in the United Kingdom by Oxford University Press. Since 2020, it has been published by Nigel Gourlay, Chapel-en-le-Frith.
The Chausath Yogini Temple of Hirapur, also called Mahamaya Temple, is 20 km outside Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha state of Eastern India. It is devoted to the worship of the yoginis, auspicious goddess-like figures.
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart is the largest and most comprehensive German encyclopedic dictionary, and among Western music reference sources, only The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is comparable to it in size and scope. It is published by Bärenreiter-Verlag in collaboration with J. B. Metzler'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Neue Deutsche Biographie is a biographical reference work. It is the successor to the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. The 26 volumes published thus far cover more than 22,500 individuals and families who lived in the German language area.
Current Biography is an American monthly magazine published by the H. W. Wilson Company of The Bronx, New York, a publisher of reference books, that appears every month except December. Current Biography contains profiles of people in the news and includes politicians, athletes, businessmen, and entertainers. Published since 1940, the articles are annually collected into bound volumes called Current Biography Yearbook. A December issue of the magazine is not published because the staff works on the final cumulative volume for the year. Articles in the bound volumes correct any mistakes that may have appeared in the magazine and may include additional relevant information about the subject that became available since publication of the original article. The work is a standard reference source in American libraries and the publisher keeps in print the older volumes. Wilson also issues cumulative indexes to the set, and an online version is available as a subscription database.
Friedrich Blume was professor of musicology at the University of Kiel from 1938–1958. He was a student in Munich, Berlin and Leipzig, and taught in the last two of these for some years before being called to the chair in Kiel. His early studies were on Lutheran church music, including several books on J.S. Bach, but broadened his interests considerably later. Among his prominent works were chief editor of the collected Praetorius edition, and he also edited the important Eulenburg scores of the major Mozart Piano Concertos. From 1949 he was involved in the planning and writing of Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Coincidentally he died within a few weeks of another prominent Mozart musicologist, Cuthbert Girdlestone, and was thus almost his exact contemporary.
Jacob K. Olupona is a Nigerian American professor at the Harvard Divinity School with a joint appointment as Professor of African and African American Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University.
L'Année philologique is an index to scholarly work in fields related to the language, literature, history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. It is the standard bibliographical tool for research in classical studies. Published in print annually since 1928, with the first volume covering the years 1924–1926, it is now also available online by institutional or individual subscription. As of June 2014, the electronic version covers volume years 1924 through 2011. The editorial staff gathers each year's additions from 1,500 periodicals, with an additional 500 articles from collections.
Thieme-Becker is a German biographical dictionary of artists.
As of 2018, ten firms in Germany rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: C.H. Beck, Bertelsmann, Cornelsen Verlag, Haufe-Gruppe, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag, Springer Nature, Thieme, WEKA Holding, and Westermann Druck- und Verlagsgruppe. Overall, "Germany has some 2,000 publishing houses, and more than 90,000 titles reach the public each year, a production surpassed only by the United States." Unlike many other countries, "book publishing is not centered in a single city but is concentrated fairly evenly in Berlin, Hamburg, and the regional metropolises of Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, and Munich."
Heinemann Vogelstein was a German rabbi and leader of Reform Judaism in Germany.
Karl-Josef Kutsch, also known as K. J. Kutsch, is a German physician and co-author with Leo Riemens of the Großes Sängerlexikon, the standard reference for opera singers.
Grimald von Weißenburg, Latinised Grimaldus, was abbot of Weissenburg Abbey, abbot of the Abbey of Saint Gall (841–872), arch-chaplain of the East Frankish king Louis the German (848–870) and chancellor.
Wolfgang Boetticher was a German musicologist and longtime lecturer at the University of Göttingen.
Walther Killy was a German literary scholar who specialised in poetry, especially that of Friedrich Hölderlin and Georg Trakl. He taught at the Free University of Berlin, the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, as founding rector of the University of Bremen, as visiting scholar at the University of California and Harvard University, and at the University of Bern. He became known as editor of literary encyclopedias, the Killy Literaturlexikon and the Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie.
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