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This is a list of Maltese governments from the creation of the first self-Government of Malta in 1921.
|Date||Allegiance (pre-1964) / Head of State (post-1964)||Head of Government||Party in Office||Government of Malta|
|1921||George V|| Joseph Howard (1921–1923)|
Francesco Buhagiar (1923–1924)
|Maltese Political Union||Maltese Government 1921–24|
|1924||Ugo Pasquale Mifsud||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1924–27|
|1927||Gerald Strickland||Constitutional Party||Maltese Government 1927–32|
|1932||Ugo Pasquale Mifsud||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1932–33|
|Self-government withheld (2 November 1933 – 4 November 1947)|
|1947||George VI||Paul Boffa|| Labour Party (1947–1949)|
Worker's Party (1949–50)
|Maltese Government 1947–1950|
|1950|| Enrico Mizzi (1950–1950)|
Giorgio Borġ Olivier (1950–1951)
|Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1950–51|
|1951||Giorgio Borġ Olivier||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1951–53|
|1953||Giorgio Borġ Olivier||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1953–55|
|1955||Dom Mintoff||Labour Party||Maltese Government 1955–1958|
|Self-government withheld (26 April 1958 – 5 March 1962)|
|1962||Elizabeth II||Giorgio Borġ Olivier||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1962–66|
|1966||Giorgio Borġ Olivier||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1966–71|
|1971||Dom Mintoff||Labour Party||Maltese Government 1971–76|
|1976||Anton Buttigieg||Dom Mintoff||Labour Party||Maltese Government 1976–81|
|1981||Albert Hyzler (interim)|| Dom Mintoff (1981–1984)|
Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici (1984–1987)
|Labour Party||Maltese Government 1981–87|
|1987||Paul Xuereb (interim)||Eddie Fenech Adami||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1987–92|
|1992||Eddie Fenech Adami||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1992–96|
|1994||Ugo Mifsud Bonnici|
|1996||Alfred Sant||Labour Party||Maltese Government 1996–98|
|1998||Eddie Fenech Adami||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 1998–2003|
|1999||Guido de Marco|
|2003|| Eddie Fenech Adami (2003–2004)|
Lawrence Gonzi (2004–2008)
|Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 2003–08|
|2004||Eddie Fenech Adami|
|2008||Lawrence Gonzi||Nationalist Party||Maltese Government 2008–13|
|2013||Joseph Muscat||Labour Party||Maltese Government 2013–17|
|2014||Marie Louise Coleiro Preca|
|2019||Joseph Muscat||Labour Party||Maltese Government 2017–2022|
|2020||Robert Abela||Labour Party||Maltese Government 2017–2022|
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated sovereign country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official and national language is Maltese, which is descended from Sicilian Arabic that developed during the Emirate of Sicily, while English serves as the second official language.
The politics of Malta takes place within a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Malta is the constitutional head of state. Executive Authority is vested in the President of Malta with the general direction and control of the Government of Malta remaining with the Prime Minister of Malta who is the head of government and the cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Malta which consists of the President of Malta and the unicameral House of Representatives of Malta with the Speaker presiding officer of the legislative body. Judicial power remains with the Chief Justice and the Judiciary of Malta. Since Independence, the party electoral system has been dominated by the Christian democratic Nationalist Party and the social democratic Labour Party.
Malta has a long history and was first inhabited in around 5900 BC. The first inhabitants were farmers, and their agricultural methods degraded the soil until the islands became uninhabitable. The islands were repopulated in around 3850 BC by a civilization which at its peak built the Megalithic Temples, which today are among the oldest surviving buildings in the world. Their civilization collapsed in around 2350 BC, but the islands were repopulated by Bronze Age warriors soon afterwards.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta. Located in the South Eastern Region of the main island, between Marsamxett Harbour to the west and the Grand Harbour to the east, its population in 2014 was 6,444, while the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938. Valletta is the southernmost capital of Europe, and at just 0.8 square kilometres, it is the European Union's smallest capital city.
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, commonly known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalric and noble nature. It has been called "the smallest sovereign state in the world", though it is not recognized as one by the United Nations.
The Nationalist Party is a Christian-democratic, conservative political party in Malta. It is one of two major contemporary political parties in Malta, along with the governing Labour Party. The Nationalist Party is currently in opposition to the Labour Party.
The President of Malta is the constitutional head of state of Malta. The President is appointed by a resolution of the House of Representatives of Malta for a five-year term, taking an oath to "preserve, protect and defend" the Constitution. The President of Malta also resides directly or indirectly in all three branches of the state. They are part of Parliament and responsible for the appointment of the judiciary. Executive authority is nominally vested in the President, but is in practice exercised by the Prime Minister.
The Labour Party, formerly known as the Malta Labour Party (MLP), is a social-democratic political party in Malta. Along with the Nationalist Party (PN), the Labour Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in Malta. Since the March 2013 general election, the party has been the governing party in the Maltese House of Representatives. The Labour Party is a member of the Party of European Socialists, and was a member of the Socialist International until December 2014.
The prime minister of Malta is the head of government, which is the highest official of Malta.
The lira was the currency of Malta from 1972 until 31 December 2007. The lira was abbreviated as Lm, although the traditional ₤ sign was often used locally. In English, the currency was still frequently called the pound because of the past usage of British currency on the islands.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller or the Order of Saint John, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem until 1291, on the island of Rhodes from 1310 until 1522, in Malta from 1530 until 1798 and at Saint Petersburg from 1799 until 1801. Today several organizations continue the Hospitaller tradition, most importantly the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
The current Constitution of Malta was adopted as a legal order on 21 September 1964, and is the self-declared supreme law of the land. Therefore, any law or action in violation of the Constitution is null and void. Being a rigid constitution, it has a three-tier entrenchment basis in order for any amendments to take place.
The Maltese passport is a passport that is issued to citizens of the Republic of Malta. Every Maltese citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The passport, along with the national identity card, allows for free rights of movement and residence in all member states of the European Economic Area, as well as Switzerland.
The State of Malta, known in common parlance as Malta, was the predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Malta. It existed between 21 September 1964 and 13 December 1974.
The Government of Malta is the executive branch of Malta. It is made up of the Cabinet and the Parliamentary Secretaries. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Malta, with the President making his or her decision based on the situation within the Maltese parliament. The Prime Minister is responsible for assigning departments of government to Permanent Secretaries. The President of Malta also appoints the rest of the cabinet with the assent of the Prime Minister of Malta.
Gozo, known locally as Għawdex and in antiquity as Gaulos, is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms.
The Cabinet of Malta is the collective decision-making body of the Government of Malta, composed of the Prime Minister and a number of Ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister from the elected members of House of Representatives to head government departments. Parliamentary Secretaries can also be invited to attend cabinet meetings as well as other senior government officials. It is presided over by the Prime Minister of Malta.
The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies was the British colony in the Maltese islands, today the modern Republic of Malta. It was established when the Malta Protectorate was transformed into a British Crown colony in 1813, and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris in 1814.
The French occupation of Malta lasted from 1798 to 1800. It was established when the Order of Saint John surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte following the French landing in June 1798. In Malta, the French have established a constitutional tradition in Maltese history, granted free education for all, and established the freedom of press, such as with the publication of the Journal de Malte.