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An o-ring boss seal is a technique for joining two fluid-carrying pipes, hoses, or tubing. In an o-ring boss (abbreviated ORB) system, a male-threaded part is inserted into a female-threaded part, providing a mechanical seal. This system differs from others in that an additional nut is tightened over an o-ring into a chamfered area, creating a fluid-tight seal.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications. The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.
In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each half of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. The "female" connector is generally a receptacle that receives and holds the "male" connector. On occasion, the terms "male" and "female" are respectively referred to as the A and B ends, though the names of some standards conflict with this as they contain the letters A or B within the name; unambiguous, though rare, terms include plug and socket or jack.
A threaded pipe is a pipe with screw-threaded ends for assembly.
This system is used most frequently in hydraulics, although it has been applied to other systems including compressed air systems and vacuum pumps, such as many Robinair pumps, in which the intake tee has an o-ring boss seal on the bottom. The ORB system can be confused with other connection systems, such as NPT. While threads of different connectors sometimes fit (although often very inexactly), o-ring boss seal system connectors should never be used with any other type of connectors and vice versa, as leaks are likely. Under the high fluid pressures commonly seen in hydraulic systems, a leak or failure of the connection is quite dangerous and could lead to loss of life.
Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics, which concerns gases. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry. The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the human body within the vascular system and erectile tissue. Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with free surface flow, such as occurring in rivers, canals, lakes, estuaries and seas. Its sub-field open-channel flow studies the flow in open channels.
A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke, and was preceded by the suction pump, which dates to antiquity.
American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread standards for short, are U.S. national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and pipe fittings. They include both tapered and straight thread series for various purposes including rigidity, pressure-tight sealing, or both. The various types are each named with a symbol and a full name; examples of the symbols include NPT, NPS, NPTF, NPSC, and others.
This system has the advantage of being able to be tightened mechanically before being sealed. Most threaded systems, such as NPT, have a seal provided by a taper in the thread, so it is difficult to orient both ends of the hose, pipe or tube so that it is not twisted. In the o-ring boss system, this problem is eliminated because the threads do not seal the connection and therefore can be rotated at least a full revolution before they are sealed while maintaining a proper mechanical connection. The orientation problem could also be solved with a suitable union.
A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's standpipe or plumbing system.
An end-face mechanical seal, or a mechanical end-face seal, also referred to as a mechanical face seal but usually simply as a mechanical seal, is a type of seal utilised in rotating equipment, such as pumps, mixers, blowers, and compressors. When a pump operates, the liquid could leak out of the pump between the rotating shaft and the stationary pump casing. Since the shaft rotates, preventing this leakage can be difficult. Earlier pump models used mechanical packing to seal the shaft. Since World War II, mechanical seals have replaced packing in many applications.
A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.
A tap is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work, operated by the use of hydraulics, where a liquid is the powering medium. In heavy equipment and other types of machine, hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders and becomes pressurised according to the resistance present. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.
A hose clamp or hose clip or hose lock is a device used to attach and seal a hose onto a fitting such as a barb or nipple.
Compression fittings are used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubes or thin-walled pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar materials are to be joined, the fittings will be made of one or more compatible materials appropriate for the connection. Compression fittings for attaching tubing (piping) commonly have ferrules in them.
This is a glossary of firefighting equipment.
A stuffing box is an assembly which is used to house a gland seal. It is used to prevent leakage of fluid, such as water or steam, between sliding or turning parts of machine elements.
A garden hose, hosepipe, or simply hose is a flexible tube used to convey water. There are a number of common attachments available for the end of the hose, such as sprayers and sprinklers. Hoses are usually attached to a hose spigot or tap.
A leak is a way for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container. Leaks are usually unintended and therefore undesired. The word leak usually refers to a gradual loss; a sudden loss is usually called a spill.
A hydraulic cylinder is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in construction equipment, manufacturing machinery, and civil engineering.
A hose coupling is a connector on the end of a hose to connect it with another hose or with a tap or a hose appliance, such as an irrigation sprinkler. It is usually made of steel, brass, stainless steel, aluminium or plastic.
A face seal is a seal in which the sealing surfaces are normal to the axis of the seal. Face seals are typically used in static applications and are used to prevent leakage in the radial direction with respect to the axis of the seal. Face seals are often located in a groove or cavity on a flange.
A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect the straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating fluid flow. "Plumbing" is generally used to describe the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments; "piping" is often used to describe the high-performance conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. "Tubing" is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially that flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.
Hydraulic pumps are used in hydraulic drive systems and can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic. A hydraulic pump is a mechanical source of power that converts mechanical power into hydraulic energy. It generates flow with enough power to overcome pressure induced by the load at the pump outlet. When a hydraulic pump operates, it creates a vacuum at the pump inlet, which forces liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line to the pump and by mechanical action delivers this liquid to the pump outlet and forces it into the hydraulic system. Hydrostatic pumps are positive displacement pumps while hydrodynamic pumps can be fixed displacement pumps, in which the displacement cannot be adjusted, or variable displacement pumps, which have a more complicated construction that allows the displacement to be adjusted. Hydrodynamic pumps are more frequent in day-to-day life. Hydrostatic pumps of various types all work on the principle of Pascal's law.
The oil pump in an internal combustion engine circulates engine oil under pressure to the rotating bearings, the sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. This lubricates the bearings, allows the use of higher-capacity fluid bearings and also assists in cooling the engine.
A cam and groove coupling, also called a camlock fitting, is a form of hose coupling. This kind of coupling is popular because it is a simple and reliable means of connecting and disconnecting hoses quickly and without tools.