Republic of Afghanistan

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Republic of Afghanistan

  • جمهوری افغانستان  (Dari)
  • Jomhūrī-ye Afġānestān
  • د افغانستان جمهوریت  (Pashto)
  • Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat
1974–1978
Flag of Afghanistan 1974.svg
Flag (1974–1978)
Emblem of Afghanistan (1974-1978)Gold.png
Emblem (1974–1978)
Anthem: "Millī Surūd"
(ملی سرود)
("National Anthem")
Afghanistan (orthographic projection).svg
Capital Kabul
33°N65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Coordinates: 33°N65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65
Common languages Pashto, Dari
Religion
Sunni Islam
Government Unitary one-party republic
President  
 1973–1978
Mohammed Daoud Khan
Legislature Loya Jirga
Historical era Cold War
17 July 1974
30 April 1978
Area
1978647,500 km2 (250,000 sq mi)
Population
 1978
13,199,600
Currency Afghani
Calling code 93
ISO 3166 code AF
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg Kingdom of Afghanistan
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg

The Republic of Afghanistan (Dari : جمهوری افغانستان, Jǝmhūri Afġānistān; Pashto : د افغانستان جمهوریت, Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat) was the name of the first republic of Afghanistan. It is often called the Daoud Republic, as it was established in 1973 after Mohammed Daoud Khan deposed his cousin, King Mohammad Zahir Shah, in a coup d'état. Daoud was known for his autocracy and attempts to modernize the country with help from both the Soviet Union and the United States, among others. [1]

Contents

In 1978, a military coup known as the Saur Revolution took place, instigated by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, in which Daoud and his family were killed. The "Daoud Republic" was subsequently succeeded by the Soviet-allied Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. [2]

History

Formation

In July 1973, while the last king of Afghanistan, Mohammed Zahir Shah was in Italy undergoing eye surgery as well as therapy for lumbago, his cousin and brother-in-law, the former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup d'état and established a single-party republic. Daoud Khan had been forced to resign as prime minister by Zahir Shah a decade earlier. [3] The king abdicated the following month rather than risk an all-out civil war. [3]

Single party rule

After seizing power, President Mohammed Daoud Khan established his own political party, the National Revolutionary Party. This party became the sole focus of political activity in the country. In January 1977, a loya jirga was convened following the Constitutional Assembly election, and approved a new constitution establishing a presidential one-party state, with political opposition being suppressed, sometimes violently. [2]

Also in 1973, former Prime Minister of Afghanistan Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal was accused of plotting a coup, though it is unclear if the plan was actually targeting the new republican government or the abolished monarchy. Maiwandwal was arrested and allegedly committed suicide in jail before his trial, but widespread belief says he was tortured to death. [2]

Rise of communism

After Daoud's 1973 establishment of the Afghan Republic, members of the People's Democratic Party (PDPA) were given positions in the government. [4] In 1976, Daoud established a seven-year economic plan for the country. He started military training programs with India and commenced economic development talks with Iran. Daoud also turned his attention to oil rich Middle Eastern nations such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait among others for financial assistance. [2]

But during Daoud's presidency, relations with the Soviet Union deteriorated. They saw his shift to a more Western-friendly leadership as dangerous, including Daoud's criticism of Cuba's membership in the Non-aligned Movement and Daoud's expulsion of Soviet military and economic advisers. The suppression of political opposition furthermore turned the Soviet-backed PDPA, an important ally in the 1973 coup against the king, against him. [2]

Daoud in 1978 had achieved little of what he had set out to accomplish. The Afghan economy had not made any real progress and the Afghan standard of living had not risen. Daoud had also garnered much criticism for his single party constitution in 1977 which alienated him from his political supporters.

When Afghans by 1978 had grown disappointed with the "do nothing" Daoud government, the PDPA government officials alone were identified by some with economic and social reform. [4] By this time, the two main factions of the PDPA, previously locked in a power struggle, had reached a fragile agreement for reconciliation. Communist-sympathizing army officials were by then already planning a move against the government. According to Hafizullah Amin, who became Afghan head of state in 1979, the PDPA had started plotting the coup in 1976, two years before it materialized. [2]

Saur Revolution

Day after Saur revolution in Kabul. Day after Saur revolution.JPG
Day after Saur revolution in Kabul.

The PDPA seized power in a military coup in 1978 which is best known as the Saur Revolution. [5] On April 27, troops from the military base at Kabul International Airport started to move towards the center of the capital. It took only 24 hours to consolidate power, with the rapid push including an air raid on the presidential palace and insurgent army units quickly seizing critical institutions and communication lines. Daoud and most of his family were executed the following day. [6]

Nur Muhammad Taraki, General Secretary of the PDPA, was proclaimed Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council and effectively succeeded Mohammed Daoud Khan as head of state. He simultaneously became head of government of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. [6]

Politics

Daoud Khan pursued the policy of "bi-tarafi" which meant "without sides" during the Cold War. [7] He sought investments from the Soviet Union and the United States.

Education

Daoud Khan heavily focused on education and woman's rights during his reign. His government opened many schools and by the time of the Saur Revolution, 1 million Afghan students were enrolled in school, many whom were girls. [7]

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1973 Afghan coup détat Overthrow of King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan

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References

  1. Rubin, Barnett. "DĀWŪD KHAN". In Ehsan Yarshater (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University . Retrieved 1 January 2008.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Daoud's Republic, July 1973 – April 1978". Country Studies. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  3. 1 2 Barry Bearak (23 July 2007). "Former King of Afghanistan Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
  4. 1 2 Amstutz, J Bruce (5 March 2002), Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation, University Press of the Pacific, pp. 35–36, ISBN   978-0898755282 , retrieved 29 March 2018
  5. "World: Analysis Afghanistan: 20 years of bloodshed". BBC News. 1998-04-26. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  6. 1 2 Garthoff, Raymond L. Détente and Confrontation. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1994. p. 986.
  7. 1 2 "THE AFGHAN COMMUNISTS" (PDF).