Republic of Afghanistan
Anthem: "Millī Surūd"
|Capital|| Kabul |
|Common languages||Pashto, Dari|
|Government||Unitary one-party republic|
|Mohammed Daoud Khan|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|17 July 1974|
|30 April 1978|
|1978||647,500 km2 (250,000 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF|
|History of Afghanistan|
|Related historical names of the region|
The Republic of Afghanistan (Dari : جمهوری افغانستان, Jǝmhūri Afġānistān; Pashto : د افغانستان جمهوریت, Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat) was the name of the first republic of Afghanistan. It is often called the Daoud Republic, as it was established in 1973 after Mohammed Daoud Khan deposed his cousin, King Mohammad Zahir Shah, in a coup d'état. Daoud was known for his autocracy and attempts to modernize the country with help from both the Soviet Union and the United States, among others.
In 1978, a military coup known as the Saur Revolution took place, instigated by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, in which Daoud and his family were killed. The "Daoud Republic" was subsequently succeeded by the Soviet-allied Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
In July 1973, while the last king of Afghanistan, Mohammed Zahir Shah was in Italy undergoing eye surgery as well as therapy for lumbago, his cousin and brother-in-law, the former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup d'état and established a single-party republic. Daoud Khan had been forced to resign as prime minister by Zahir Shah a decade earlier.The king abdicated the following month rather than risk an all-out civil war.
After seizing power, President Mohammed Daoud Khan established his own political party, the National Revolutionary Party. This party became the sole focus of political activity in the country. In January 1977, a loya jirga was convened following the Constitutional Assembly election, and approved a new constitution establishing a presidential one-party state, with political opposition being suppressed, sometimes violently.
Also in 1973, former Prime Minister of Afghanistan Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal was accused of plotting a coup, though it is unclear if the plan was actually targeting the new republican government or the abolished monarchy. Maiwandwal was arrested and allegedly committed suicide in jail before his trial, but widespread belief says he was tortured to death.
After Daoud's 1973 establishment of the Afghan Republic, members of the People's Democratic Party (PDPA) were given positions in the government.In 1976, Daoud established a seven-year economic plan for the country. He started military training programs with India and commenced economic development talks with Iran. Daoud also turned his attention to oil rich Middle Eastern nations such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait among others for financial assistance.
But during Daoud's presidency, relations with the Soviet Union deteriorated. They saw his shift to a more Western-friendly leadership as dangerous, including Daoud's criticism of Cuba's membership in the Non-aligned Movement and Daoud's expulsion of Soviet military and economic advisers. The suppression of political opposition furthermore turned the Soviet-backed PDPA, an important ally in the 1973 coup against the king, against him.
Daoud in 1978 had achieved little of what he had set out to accomplish. The Afghan economy had not made any real progress and the Afghan standard of living had not risen. Daoud had also garnered much criticism for his single party constitution in 1977 which alienated him from his political supporters.
When Afghans by 1978 had grown disappointed with the "do nothing" Daoud government, the PDPA government officials alone were identified by some with economic and social reform.By this time, the two main factions of the PDPA, previously locked in a power struggle, had reached a fragile agreement for reconciliation. Communist-sympathizing army officials were by then already planning a move against the government. According to Hafizullah Amin, who became Afghan head of state in 1979, the PDPA had started plotting the coup in 1976, two years before it materialized.
The PDPA seized power in a military coup in 1978 which is best known as the Saur Revolution.On April 27, troops from the military base at Kabul International Airport started to move towards the center of the capital. It took only 24 hours to consolidate power, with the rapid push including an air raid on the presidential palace and insurgent army units quickly seizing critical institutions and communication lines. Daoud and most of his family were executed the following day.
Nur Muhammad Taraki, General Secretary of the PDPA, was proclaimed Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council and effectively succeeded Mohammed Daoud Khan as head of state. He simultaneously became head of government of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Daoud Khan pursued the policy of "bi-tarafi" which meant "without sides" during the Cold War.He sought investments from the Soviet Union and the United States.
Daoud Khan heavily focused on education and woman's rights during his reign. His government opened many schools and by the time of the Saur Revolution, 1 million Afghan students were enrolled in school, many whom were girls.
Babrak Karmal was an Afghan revolutionary and politician who was the leader of Afghanistan, serving in the post of General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan for seven years.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), renamed the Republic of Afghanistan in 1986, existed from 1978 to 1992, during which time the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
SardarMohammed Daoud Khan, also romanized as Daud Khan or Dawood Khan, was an Afghan politician who served as the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and, as leader of the 1973 Afghan coup d'état which overthrew the monarchy, became the first President of Afghanistan, from 1973 to 1978. Born into the Musahiban royal family, Khan started as a provincial governor in the 1930s and later a commander before he was chosen as prime minister in the monarchy of his first cousin, Mohammed Zahir Shah. Ten years after his resignation as prime minister, Khan overthrew the monarchy with the backing of Afghan Army officers and declared himself as the first President of the Republic of Afghanistan in 1973, renouncing his royal title.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was a Marxist–Leninist political party in Afghanistan established on 1 January 1965. Four members of the party won seats in that year's parliamentary elections, reduced to two seats in 1969, albeit both before parties were fully legal. For most of its existence, the party was split between the hardline Khalq and moderate Parcham factions, each of which claimed to represent the “true” PDPA.
The prime minister of Afghanistan was a post in the Afghan government. The position was created in 1927 as an official appointed by the king of Afghanistan. The holder served mostly as an advisor, until the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1973. During the 1980s, the position was the head of government.
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal was an Afghan politician during the reign of Zahir Shah.
Parcham was the name of one of the factions of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, formed in 1967 following its split and led for most of its history by Babrak Karmal. The basic ideology of the Parchamites was one of a gradual move towards socialism in Afghanistan. The Parcham faction supported this idea because they felt that Afghanistan was not industrialized enough to undergo a true proletarian revolution as called for in the Communist Manifesto.
Khalq was a faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Its historical de facto leaders were Nur Muhammad Taraki (1967-1979), Hafizullah Amin (1979) and Sayed Mohammad Gulabzoy (1979-1990). It was also the name of the leftist newspaper produced by the same movement. The Khalq wing was formed in 1967 after the split of the party due to bitter resentment with the rival Parcham faction which had a differing revolutionary strategy.
Colonel General Abdul Kadir Dagarwal was an Afghan politician, diplomat, and a military officer in the Afghan Air Force who participated in the coup d'état that created the Republic of Afghanistan under the President Dawood Khan, and later directed the Afghan Air Force and Army Air Corps squadrons that attacked the Radio-TV station during the Saur Revolution. He served as the acting head of state for three days when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power and declared the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, before handing over power to PDPA leader Noor Mohammad Taraki. He later served two terms as Minister of Defense, the first as part of the Taraki government from April to August 1978, and the latter as part of the Babrak Karmal government from 1982 to 1986. His second term took place during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
The Saur Revolution, also romanized Sowr Revolution, and alternatively called the April Revolution or April Coup, was the process by which the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978, who had himself taken power in the 1973 Afghan coup d'état. Daoud Khan and most of his family were killed at the presidential palace by military officers in support of the PDPA. The revolution resulted in the creation of a Soviet-aligned government with Nur Muhammad Taraki as President. Saur or Sowr is the Dari (Persian) name of the second month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the month in which the uprising took place.
The following lists events that happened during 1973 in Afghanistan.
Mir Akbar Khyber was an Afghan left-wing intellectual and a leader of the Parcham faction of People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). His assassination by an unidentified person or people led to the overthrow of Mohammed Daoud Khan's republic, and to the advent of a socialist regime in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Shola-e Javid was a Maoist political party founded around 1964 in the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Its strategy was populist, gaining support from university students, professionals, the majority Pashtuns and the Shi'a Hazaras. It grew significantly in popularity throughout the late 1960s and into the 1970s, possibly eclipsing that of the Parcham and Khalq factions of the pro-Soviet People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) up until the factions' reconciliation in 1977. The Shola-e Javid party was made illegal in 1969 after criticizing King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan was a constitutional monarchy in Southern and Central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan. It was proclaimed by its first king, Amanullah Khan, seven years after his accession to the throne. The monarchy ended in the 1973 Afghan coup d'état.
General Mohammed Asif Safi was an Army General in the Afghan National Army during King Zahir Shah's rule in Afghanistan, and later during the 1970s era of President Mohammed Daoud Khan.
National Revolutionary Party was a political party in the Republic of Afghanistan. The party was founded in 1975 by President Mohammed Daoud Khan, who had seized control of Afghanistan from his first cousin, King Mohammed Zahir Shah, in the bloodless 1973 coup d'état.
In a relatively bloodless coup, King Mohammed Zahir Shah was deposed on 17 July 1973 and the Republic of Afghanistan established. The coup was executed by the then-Army commander and prince, Mohammed Daoud Khan who led forces in Kabul along with then-chief of staff General Abdul Karim Mustaghni to overthrow the monarchy while the King was convalescing abroad in Ischia, Italy. Daoud Khan was assisted by leftist Army officers and civil servants from the Parcham faction of the PDPA, including Air Force colonel Abdul Qadir. King Zahir Shah decided not to retaliate and he formally abdicated on August 24, remaining in Italy in exile. More than two centuries of royal rule ended.
Several coup d'etats or similar events have occurred in Afghanistan since its modern foundation in 1919.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Afghanistan in January 1977. The Constitutional Assembly was called to produce a new constitution four years after the coup that saw Mohammed Daoud Khan overthrow his brother, King Mohammed Zahir Shah. The Assembly was part-elected and part-appointed.