Revenue-based financing

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Revenue-based financing or royalty-based financing (RBF) is a type of financial capital provided to small or growing businesses in which investors inject capital into a business in return for a percentage of ongoing gross revenues, with monthly payment increases and decreases based on monthly revenues. [1] Usually the returns to the investor continue until the initial capital amount, plus a multiple (also known as a cap) is repaid. [2] Generally, RBF investors expect the loan to be repaid within 3 to 5 years of the initial investment.

Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.

Contents

RBF is often described as sitting between a bank loan, typically requiring collateral or significant assets, and angel investment or venture capital, which involve selling an equity portion of the business in exchange for the investment. [3] [4] In an RBF investment, investors do not take an upfront ownership stake (equity) in the business, usually taking a small equity warrant instead. RBF investments usually do not require a seat on the company's board of directors, and no valuation exercise is necessary to make the investment. Nor does RBF require the backing of the loan by founder's personal assets.

Loan transfer of money that must be repaid

In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient incurs a debt, and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid, and also to repay the principal amount borrowed.

Venture capital start-up investment

Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth. Venture capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange for equity, or an ownership stake, in the companies they invest in. Venture capitalists take on the risk of financing risky start-ups in the hopes that some of the firms they support will become successful. Because startups face high uncertainty, VC investments do have high rates of failure. The start-ups are usually based on an innovative technology or business model and they are usually from the high technology industries, such as information technology (IT), clean technology or biotechnology.

Equity (finance) difference between the value of the assets/interest and the cost of the liabilities of something owned

In accounting, equity is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned. It is governed by the following equation:

History

RBF has long been used in the energy industries as a type of debt financing. In the late 1980s, Arthur Fox pioneered this funding model for early-stage businesses in New England. Seeing some initial success, he began a small RBF fund in 1992, which was found to perform on-par with expectations for the alternative assets industry, yielding an IRR of over 50%. [5] In 2011, he began licensing his proprietary RBF financing model to enable new RBF funds to form.

The internal rate of return (IRR) is a measure of an investment’s rate of return. The term internal refers to the fact that the calculation excludes external factors, such as the risk-free rate, inflation, the cost of capital, or various financial risks.

The Revenue Capital Association is the trade association representing the RBF industry. Some firms have a geographic-focused model in the Mountain States. Other firms take a more nationwide approach. [6]

Comparison

RBF can provide significant advantages to entrepreneurs and businesses. [6] The nature of RBF, however, requires that businesses have two key attributes. First, the business must be generating revenue, as it will be from that revenue that payments are made. [7] Second, the business should have strong gross margins to accommodate the percentage of revenue dedicated to loan payments. [7]

Revenue income that a business has from its normal business activities

In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. Revenue is also referred to as sales or turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees. Revenue may refer to business income in general, or it may refer to the amount, in a monetary unit, earned during a period of time, as in "Last year, Company X had revenue of $42 million". Profits or net income generally imply total revenue minus total expenses in a given period. In accounting, in the balance statement it is a subsection of the Equity section and revenue increases equity, it is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income.

Gross margin relating gross profits to net sales

Gross margin is the difference between revenue and cost of goods sold (COGS) divided by revenue. Gross margin is expressed as a percentage. Generally, it is calculated as the selling price of an item, less the cost of goods sold. Gross Margin is often used interchangeably with Gross Profit, but the terms are different. When speaking about a monetary amount, it is technically correct to use the term Gross Profit; when referring to a percentage or ratio, it is correct to use Gross Margin. In other words, Gross Margin is a percentage value, while Gross Profit is a monetary value.

The interests of an RBF investor align with the interests of the companies in which they invest. Both parties benefit from revenue growth in the business; both parties suffer when revenue declines. [8] T his is in contrast to a typical bank loan, which has a fixed monthly payment over the life of the loan regardless of business revenue. RBF helps manage rough months in the business by having a payment that traces revenue.

Cost of capital is an important consideration for entrepreneurs raising money. Usually the cost of capital in an RBF investment is significantly less than a similar equity investment, for several reasons: First, the actual interest rate on the loan is much lower than the effective interest rate required by an equity investor on their invested capital if the business should be sold. [9] Second, legal fees are lower than with equity financing. [10] Third, because the investment is a loan, the interest payments can often be a tax deduction for the business. [11]

This cost of capital savings is a result of the RBF model and nature of the risk taken by the investor. Because the loan is making payment each month, the RBF investor does not require the eventual sale of the business in order to earn a return. This means that they can afford to take on lower returns in exchange for knowledge that the loan will begin to repay far sooner than if it depended on the eventual sale of the business.

RBF often is more expensive than bank financing, [6] However, few early-stage businesses seeking growth capital will have an asset base to support a commercial loan. Most banks will therefore require a guarantee from the founders of a business that, in the event of default, the bank can pursue their personal assets. [12]

Related Research Articles

Debt deferred payment, or series of payments, that is owed in the future

Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. Debt is a deferred payment, or series of payments, that is owed in the future, which is what differentiates it from an immediate purchase. The debt may be owed by sovereign state or country, local government, company, or an individual. Commercial debt is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest. Loans, bonds, notes, and mortgages are all types of debt. The term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value. For example, in Western cultures, a person who has been helped by a second person is sometimes said to owe a "debt of gratitude" to the second person.

Financial services economic service provided by the finance industry

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises. Financial services companies are present in all economically developed geographic locations and tend to cluster in local, national, regional and international financial centers such as London, New York City, and Tokyo.

Seed money, sometimes known as seed funding or seed capital, is a form of securities offering in which an investor invests capital in a startup company in exchange for an equity stake in the company. The term seed suggests that this is a very early investment, meant to support the business until it can generate cash of its own, or until it is ready for further investments. Seed money options include friends and family funding, angel funding, and crowdfunding.

In Economics and Accounting, the cost of capital is the cost of a company's funds, or, from an investor's point of view "the required rate of return on a portfolio company's existing securities". It is used to evaluate new projects of a company. It is the minimum return that investors expect for providing capital to the company, thus setting a benchmark that a new project has to meet.

In finance, mezzanine capital is any subordinated debt or preferred equity instrument that represents a claim on a company's assets which is senior only to that of the common shares. Mezzanine financings can be structured either as debt or preferred stock.

In finance, leverage is any technique involving the use of debt rather than fresh equity in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after-tax profit to equity holders from the transaction will exceed the borrowing cost, frequently by several multiples⁠ ⁠— hence the provenance of the word from the effect of a lever in physics, a simple machine which amplifies the application of a comparatively small input force into a correspondingly greater output force. Normally, the lender will set a limit on how much risk it is prepared to take and will set a limit on how much leverage it will permit, and would require the acquired asset to be provided as collateral security for the loan. For example, for a residential property the finance provider may lend up to, say, 80% of the property's market value, for a commercial property it may be 70%, while on shares it may lend up to, say, 60% or none at all on certain volatile shares.

Social venture capital is a form of investment funding that is usually funded by a group of social venture capitalists or an impact investor to provide seed-funding investment, usually in a for-profit social enterprise, in return to achieve a reasonable gain in financial return while delivering social impact to the world. It deviates from the traditional venture capital model, which focuses on simple risk and reward. However, there are various organizations, such as venture philanthropy companies and nonprofit organizations, that deploy a simple venture capital strategy model to fund nonprofit events, social enterprises, or activities that deliver a high social impact or a strong social causes for their existence. There are also regionally focused organizations that target a specific region of the world, to help build and support the local community in a social cause.

Project finance is the long-term financing of infrastructure and industrial projects based upon the projected cash flows of the project rather than the balance sheets of its sponsors. Usually, a project financing structure involves a number of equity investors, known as 'sponsors', a 'syndicate' of banks or other lending institutions that provide loans to the operation. They are most commonly non-recourse loans, which are secured by the project assets and paid entirely from project cash flow, rather than from the general assets or creditworthiness of the project sponsors, a decision in part supported by financial modeling. The financing is typically secured by all of the project assets, including the revenue-producing contracts. Project lenders are given a lien on all of these assets and are able to assume control of a project if the project company has difficulties complying with the loan terms.

Under-capitalization refers to any situation where a business cannot acquire the funds they need. An under-capitalized business may be one that cannot afford current operational expenses due to a lack of capital, which can trigger bankruptcy, may be one that is over-exposed to risk, or may be one that is financially sound but does not have the funds required to expand to meet market demand.

Real estate investing involves the purchase, ownership, management, rental and/or sale of real estate for profit. Improvement of realty property as part of a real estate investment strategy is generally considered to be a sub-specialty of real estate investing called real estate development. Real estate is a asset form with limited liquidity relative to other investments, it is also capital intensive and is highly cash flow dependent. If these factors are not well understood and managed by the investor, real estate becomes a risky investment.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance:

Mortgage loan loan secured using real estate

A mortgage loan or, simply, mortgage is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged. The loan is "secured" on the borrower's property through a process known as mortgage origination. This means that a legal mechanism is put into place which allows the lender to take possession and sell the secured property to pay off the loan in the event the borrower defaults on the loan or otherwise fails to abide by its terms. The word mortgage is derived from a Law French term used in Britain in the Middle Ages meaning "death pledge" and refers to the pledge ending (dying) when either the obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure. A mortgage can also be described as "a borrower giving consideration in the form of a collateral for a benefit (loan)".

An angel investor is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity. Angel investors usually give support to start-ups at the initial moments and when most investors are not prepared to back them. A small but increasing number of angel investors invest online through equity crowdfunding or organize themselves into angel groups or angel networks to share investment capital, as well as to provide advice to their portfolio companies. In the last 50 years the number of angel investors has greatly increased.

Venture debt or venture lending is a type of debt financing provided to venture-backed companies by specialized banks or non-bank lenders to fund working capital or capital expenses, such as purchasing equipment. Venture debt can complement venture capital and provide value to fast growing companies and their investors. Unlike traditional bank lending, venture debt is available to startups and growth companies that do not have positive cash flows or significant assets to use as collateral. Venture debt providers combine their loans with warrants, or rights to purchase equity, to compensate for the higher risk of default.

Impact investing refers to investments "made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate a measurable, beneficial social or environmental impact alongside a financial return". Impact investments provide capital to address social and/or environmental issues.

Securitization is the financial practice of pooling various types of contractual debt such as residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, auto loans or credit card debt obligations and selling their related cash flows to third party investors as securities, which may be described as bonds, pass-through securities, or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs). Investors are repaid from the principal and interest cash flows collected from the underlying debt and redistributed through the capital structure of the new financing. Securities backed by mortgage receivables are called mortgage-backed securities (MBS), while those backed by other types of receivables are asset-backed securities (ABS).

Small business financing refers to the means by which an aspiring or current business owner obtains money to start a new small business, purchase an existing small business or bring money into an existing small business to finance current or future business activity. There are many ways to finance a new or existing business, each of which features its own benefits and limitations. In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–08, the availability of traditional types of small business financing dramatically decreased. At the same time, alternative types of small business financing have emerged. In this context, it is instructive to divide the types of small business financing into the two broad categories of traditional and alternative small business financing options.

Profit and Loss Sharing (also called PLS or "participatory" banking is a method of finance used by Islamic financial or Shariah-complaint institutions to comply with the religious prohibition on interest on loans that most Muslims subscribe to. Many sources state there are two varieties of profit and loss sharing used by Islamic banks – Mudarabah and Musharakah. Other sources include sukuk and direct equity investment as types of PLS.

References

  1. Tetreault, Tricia (2019-02-22). "Revenue-Based Financing: How a Revenue-Based Loan Works". FitSmallBusiness. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  2. Rogers, Kate (2016-03-23). "Revenue-Based Financing: What's at Risk". FOXBusiness. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. Khazan, Olga (8 April 2012). "Between banks and venture capital, some start-ups look to a pay-as-you-go model". The Washington Post.
  4. "AVC: Revenue Based Financing". ACV. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  5. [ dead link ] "Revenue Capital & Disruptive Models: Venture Funding Tools for Developing Nations". Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
  6. 1 2 3 Stillman, Jessica (2012-09-26). "Overlooked Financing Option for Your Business". Inc. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  7. 1 2 Randall, Lucas (2011-06-14). "When NOT to raise Revenue-based Financing".
  8. "A Sack of Seattle: Angel Investing".
  9. Kerins, Frank (February 2003). "opportunity cost of capital for venture capital investors and entrepreneurs" (PDF). Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.[ permanent dead link ]
  10. "Revenue-based Financing: What's At Risk". 2016-03-23.
  11. "Tax treatment of revenue-based payments". Archived from the original on 2013-01-25.
  12. "5 Typical Bank Requirements for a Business Loan".