State Police (Finland)

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State Police
Valtiollinen poliisi
Agency overview
Formed 1937
Preceding agency
  • Etsivä keskuspoliisi
Dissolved 1949
Superseding agency
Jurisdiction Republic of Finland

State Police (In Finnish: Valtiollinen poliisi (Valpo; literally "state police" or "governmental police") was the predecessor of the Finnish Security Intelligence Service.

Finnish language language arising and mostly spoken in Finland, of the Finnic family

Finnish is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. Finnish is one of the two official languages of Finland ; Finnish is also an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both Standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent.

Finnish Security Intelligence Service national security agency of Finland

The Finnish Security Intelligence Service (Supo), formerly the Finnish Security Police, is the security and intelligence agency of Finland in charge of national security, such as counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism, under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry. Operational since 1949 and headquartered in Helsinki, Supo had 291 employees and a budget of 27.9 million euros in 2016. The Service had a distinct role during the Cold War in monitoring communists as well as in the balance between Finnish independence and Soviet appeasement (finlandization); after the 1990s Supo has focused more on countering terrorism and in the 2010s on preventing hybrid operations.

Contents

History

Etsivä keskuspoliisi

Etsivä keskuspoliisi
Agency overview
Formed 1919
Dissolved 1937
Superseding agency
  • Valtiollinen Poliisi
Jurisdiction Republic of Finland

Valtiollinen poliisi has its roots in Osasto III ("Section III") which was formed in summer 1918 by the right wing (so called "whites") of the Finnish Civil War. Its mission was to conduct military intelligence and to monitor the other side of the civil war, the so-called "reds." In the beginning of 1919 the passport section of the general staff which was responsible for internal intelligence was moved under the supervision of the internal ministry and the organizational changes were continued by forming Etsivä keskuspoliisi (EK), which translates directly to "Detecting central police". Etsivä keskuspoliisi was made permanent at the end of 1927, and in December 1937 its name was changed to Valtiollinen poliisi. Later famous politician and president of Finland Urho Kekkonen worked as abitur of jurisprudence and lawyer in EK. [1]

Finnish Civil War 1918 civil war in Finland

The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state. The clashes took place in the context of the national, political, and social turmoil caused by World War I in Europe. The civil war was fought between the Reds, led by a section of the Social Democratic Party, and the Whites, conducted by the conservative-based Senate and the German Imperial Army. The paramilitary Red Guards, composed of industrial and agrarian workers, controlled the cities and industrial centres of southern Finland. The paramilitary White Guards, composed of farmers, along with middle-class and upper-class social strata, controlled rural central and northern Finland.

Urho Kekkonen eighth President of Finland

Urho Kaleva Kekkonen was a Finnish politician who served as the eighth and longest-serving President of Finland (1956–82). He ruled over Finland for nearly 26 years, and held a questionably large amount of power; he is often classified as an autocrat. Regardless, he remains a popular, respected and recognizable figure. Previously, he had served as Prime Minister of Finland, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Speaker of the Finnish Parliament (1948–50) and Minister of Justice. As president, Kekkonen continued the "active neutrality" policy of his predecessor President Juho Kusti Paasikivi, a doctrine that came to be known as the "Paasikivi–Kekkonen line", under which Finland retained its independence while maintaining good relations and extensive trade with members of both NATO and the Warsaw Pact. He hosted the European Conference on Security and Co-operation in Helsinki in 1975 and was considered a potential candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize that year.

Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia. It is conferred on students who pass their final exams at the end of their secondary education, usually after eleven, twelve or thirteen years of schooling. In German, the term Abitur has roots in the archaic word Abiturium, which in turn was derived from the Latin abiturus.

Valpo I

Valpo II (Red Valpo)

Otto Brusiin was Valpo's director from 26 April 1945 to 10 January 1946 in which time many people were fired from Valpo and replaced with communists and other radical leftists. Many of these people used to be watched by Valpo. This era was commonly called as the "Red Valpo", more officially "Valpo II."

Otto Brusiin (1906-1973) was a leading Finnish teacher of law. He taught at Helsinki from 1949 on before he was made assistant professor at Helsinki in 1955 and professor at Turku in 1961.

After Brusiin, Valpo had many directors who served only short periods. The true director was considered to be the extra department head Aimo Aaltonen who was also the president of Suomen kommunistinen puolue (SKP) ("The Communist Party of Finland"). He had to resign in 1947 for internal party reasons. His status was later confirmed in Ahlbäck's committee's hearings, and the investigation led to criminal charges against Brusiin and other personnel from Valpo for negligence of official duty. [2]

Aimo Aaltonen Finnish politician

Aimo Anshelm Aaltonen was a Finnish construction worker and politician. He became a communist as a young man and went to the Soviet Union in 1930, where he studied from 1930 to 1933 at the Communist University of the National Minorities of the West in Leningrad. Shortly after he returned to Finland, he was arrested on sedition charges and spent ten years in prison. In 1944 he was freed as a result of the Moscow Armistice of 19 September 1944, which led to the legalisation of the Communist Party of Finland (SKP). Aaltonen served as the chairman of the SKP from 1944 to 1945 and again from 1948 to 1966. He was the deputy chief of the VALPO from 1945 to 1947. He was a member of the Parliament of Finland from 1945 to 1962, representing the Finnish People's Democratic League (SKDL).

Communist Party of Finland Finnish political party (1918–1990)

The Communist Party of Finland was a communist political party in Finland. The SKP was a section of Comintern and illegal in Finland until 1944.

Valpo was decommissioned in 1948 and replaced with Suojelupoliisi which started its operation at the beginning of 1949 and had a considerably smaller staff. [3]

The archives of Etsivä keskuspoliisi and Valtiollinen poliisi are public up until 1948, and they are kept in the Finnish National archives.

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