Sun-Earth Day

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Sun-Earth Day is a joint educational program established in 2000 by NASA and ESA. The goal of the program is to popularize the knowledge about the Sun, and the way it influences life on Earth, among students and the public. [1] The day itself is mainly celebrated in the United States near the time of the spring equinox. However, the Sun-Earth Day event actually runs throughout the year, with a different theme being chosen each year. [2]



The selection of each year's theme often corresponds to events for that year. [3] Every theme is supported by free educational plans for both informal and formal educators. [2] Here is a list of themes by year:

Sun-Earth Day (Themes)
2001Having a Solar Blast
2002Celebrate the Equinox
2003Live from the Aurora
2004Venus Transit
2005Ancient Observatories Timeless Knowledge
2006Eclipse: In a Different Light
2007Living in the Atmosphere of the Sun
2008Space Weather Around the World
2009Our Sun, Yours to Discover
2010Magnetic Storms
2011March 19, 2011Ancient Mysteries; Future Discoveries. [4]
2012June 5, 2012Transit of Venus [5]
2013Solar Max – Storm Warning! [6]
2014[ data unknown/missing ]
2015[ data unknown/missing ]
2016[ data unknown/missing ]
2017[ data unknown/missing ]

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, Venus can cast shadows and, rarely, is visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Venus lies within Earth's orbit, and so never appears to venture far from the Sun, either setting in the west just after dusk or rising in the east a bit before dawn. Venus orbits the Sun every 224.7 Earth days. With a rotation period of 243 Earth days, it takes longer to rotate about its axis than any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to all but Uranus. Venus does not have any natural satellites, a distinction it shares only with Mercury among planets in the Solar System.

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Conjunction (astronomy) when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude (close apparent approach)

In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth. The astronomical symbol for conjunction is ☌ and handwritten . The conjunction symbol is not used in modern astronomy. It continues to be used in astrology.

Solar flare a sudden flash of increased brightness on the Sun, usually observed near its surface and in close proximity to a sunspot group.

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased brightness on the Sun, usually observed near its surface and in close proximity to a sunspot group. Powerful flares are often, but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection. Even the most powerful flares are barely detectable in the total solar irradiance.

<i>MESSENGER</i> Seventh mission of the Discovery program; orbital reconnaissance of the planet Mercury

MESSENGER was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015, studying Mercury's chemical composition, geology, and magnetic field. The name is a backronym for "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and a reference to the messenger god Mercury from Roman mythology.

Transit of Venus astronomical transit of Venus across the Sun

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against the solar disk. During a transit, Venus can be seen from Earth as a small black dot moving across the face of the Sun. The duration of such transits is usually several hours. A transit is similar to a solar eclipse by the Moon. While the diameter of Venus is more than three times that of the Moon, Venus appears smaller, and travels more slowly across the face of the Sun, because it is much farther away from Earth.

Transit of Mercury a transit of Mercury across the Sun

A transit of Mercury across the Sun takes place when the planet Mercury passes directly (transits) between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against the solar disk. During a transit, Mercury appears as a tiny black dot moving across the disk of the Sun.

2012 transit of Venus Transit of Venus across the Sun visible from Earth on 5–6 June 2012

The 2012 transit of Venus, when the planet Venus appeared as a small, dark spot passing across the face of the Sun, began at 22:09 UTC on 5 June 2012, and finished at 04:49 UTC on 6 June. Depending on the position of the observer, the exact times varied by up to ±7 minutes. Transits of Venus are among the rarest of predictable celestial phenomena and occur in pairs. Consecutive transits per pair are spaced 8 years apart, and consecutive pairs occur more than a century apart: The previous transit of Venus took place on 8 June 2004 ; the next pair of transits will occur on 10–11 December 2117 and December 2125 within the 22nd century.

Transit of Deimos from Mars

A transit of Deimos across the Sun as seen from Mars occurs when Deimos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a small part of the Sun's disc for an observer on Mars. During a transit, Deimos can be seen from Mars as a small dark spot rapidly moving across the Sun's face.

Observations and explorations of Venus биодпщлпгоржзпн8зд

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The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus. It is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and is much denser and hotter than that of Earth. The temperature at the surface is 740 K, and the pressure is 93 bar (9.3 MPa), roughly the pressure found 900 m (3,000 ft) underwater on Earth. The Venusian atmosphere supports opaque clouds made of sulfuric acid, making optical Earth-based and orbital observation of the surface impossible. Information about the topography has been obtained exclusively by radar imaging. Aside from carbon dioxide, the other main component is nitrogen. Other chemical compounds are present only in trace amounts.

ACRIMSAT dedicated satellite and instrument

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A coronal cloud is the cloud of hot plasma gas surrounding a coronal mass ejection. It is usually made up of protons and electrons. When a coronal mass ejection occurs at the Earth's Sun, it is the coronal cloud that usually reaches Earth and causes damage to electrical equipment and space satellites, not the ejection or flare itself. The damage is mostly the result of the high amount of electricity moving through the atmosphere.


  1. "Sun-Earth Day 2004: Transit of Venus". Science Scope. National Science Teachers Association. 27 (5): 34–41. Feb 2004. ProQuest   226011597.
  2. 1 2 "Sun Earth Day web page".
  3. "Past Sun-Earth Days 2012" . Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  4. "Goddard Annual Sun-Earth Day Has a Tweeting Twist". NASA.
  5. Thieman, James. "Venus Transit: About Sun-Earth Day 2012" . Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  6. "Solar Maximum 2013". NASA. Retrieved 2013-01-11.