Thomas Snowden, (August 12, 1857 - January 27, 1930) was a career officer in the United States Navy. He attained the rank of rear admiral, and received the Navy Cross for his service in World War I.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.
Snowden was born in Peekskill, New York. He was appointed a Cadet Midshipman on June 25, 1875, and graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1879.
Peekskill, officially the City of Peekskill, is a city in Westchester County, New York. Peekskill is situated on a bay along the east side of the Hudson River, across from Jones Point. The population was 23,583 during the 2010 census.
A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Australia, Bangladesh, Namibia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Kenya.
He served in USS Vandalia (1876), USS Standish (1864), USS Monongahela (1862), USS Dolphin (PG-24), and USS Constellation (1854). Snowden was assigned to the Hydrographic Office, U.S. Naval Observatory, U.S. Naval Academy, Naval War College, and the Office of Naval Intelligence. From 1902 to 1905, he served as navigator of USS Illinois (BB-7) and then returned to Naval Intelligence before joining the Bureau of Equipment.
The second USS Vandalia was a screw sloop-of-war in the United States Navy. She was laid down at the Massachusetts Boston Navy Yard in 1872 and was commissioned there on 10 January 1876.
USS Standish was an iron-hulled screw tug of the United States Navy.
USS Monongahela (1862) was a barkentine–rigged screw sloop-of-war that served in the Union Navy during the American Civil War. Her task was to participate in the Union blockade of the Confederate States of America. Post-war, she continued serving her country in various roles, such as that of a storeship and schoolship.
Snowden returned to sea in 1908 and commanded USS Mayflower (PY-1), USS South Carolina (BB-26), and USS Wyoming (BM-10). He was promoted to rear admiral in 1917 and, during World War I, served as Commander, Squadron 1 and Division 2, Battleship Force, Atlantic Fleet. Admiral Snowden was awarded the Navy Cross for his service in World War I.
USS Mayflower (PY-1) was the second ship in the United States Navy to have that name. Mayflower—a luxurious steam yacht built in 1896 by J. and G. Thompson, Clydebank, Scotland for millionaire Ogden Goelet who died on board the Mayflower in August 1897. Her sister ship, said to be almost identical and built at the same time and in the same yard for brother, Robert Goelet, later became USS Nahma (SP-771).
USS South Carolina (BB-26), the lead ship of her class of dreadnought battleships, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the eighth state. She was also the first American dreadnought; though she did not incorporate turbine propulsion like HMS Dreadnought, South Carolina's design included revolutionary aspects as well, primarily the superfiring arrangement of her main battery. The ship was laid down in December 1906 and launched in July 1908 before being commissioned into the US Atlantic Fleet in March 1910.
USS Wyoming (BM-10) was the second ship of the United States Navy to bear that name, but the first to bear it in honor of the 44th state. The first Wyoming was named for Wyoming Valley in eastern Pennsylvania.
After serving with the Atlantic Fleet until 1919, Snowden was assigned duty as the Military Governor of Santo Domingo with additional duty as Military Representative of the United States in Haiti. During his tenure, Snowden signed Executive Order 372 related to the immigration of braceros into the DR. This law regulated the flow of foreign seasonal workers, emphasizing that all braceros who were not Caucasians (arguably none of them were) could only come into the DR through specific border crosses established by the Secretary of State for Agriculture and Immigration. The law also established fines of between 10 and 100 US Dollars, as well as the possibility of imprisonment and deportation (Ricourt, 2016, Vásquez Frías, 2013).
Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.
Snowden was transferred to the Retired List on August 12, 1921 and died on January 27, 1930. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Section 2, Site: 1127.
Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 624 acres (253 ha) the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), controls the cemetery.
The United States Fleet Forces Command (USFF) is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U.S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Originally formed as United States Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America. The command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U.S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U.S. Strategic Command.
William Veazie Pratt was an admiral in the United States Navy. He served as the President of the Naval War College from 1925 to 1927, and as the 5th Chief of Naval Operations from 1930 to 1933.
Joseph Mason "Bull" Reeves was an admiral in the United States Navy and an early and important supporter of U.S. Naval Aviation. Though a battleship officer during his early career, he became known as the "Father of Carrier Aviation" for his role in integrating aircraft carriers into the Fleet as a major part of the Navy's attack capabilities.
Frank Brooks Upham served in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War and was an admiral in the during World War I.
Vice Admiral Morton Lyndholm Deyo was an officer in the United States Navy, who was a naval gunfire support task force commander of World War II.
Seaton Schroeder was an admiral of the United States Navy.
Admiral Samuel Shelburne Robison CB, USN was a United States Navy officer whose service extended from the 1890s through the early 1930s. He held several major commands during World War I, and from 1928-1931 served as Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy. In 1933, Admiral Robison also founded a Naval Preparatory Academy in Pine Beach, New Jersey called Admiral Farragut Academy.
Harry Shepard Knapp was a Vice Admiral of the United States Navy, Military Governor of Santo Domingo, and Military Representative of the United States in Haiti.
William Banks Caperton was an admiral of the United States Navy.
Albert Parker Niblack was a United States admiral who served during the First World War. In 1940, the USS Niblack (DD-424), sponsored by his widow, was named in his honor.
Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl, a native of Maunabo, Puerto Rico, was an officer in the United States Navy and the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy and to be awarded the Navy Cross. The Navy Cross is the second highest medal, after the Medal of Honor, that can be awarded by the U.S. Navy for heroism or distinguished service. He was a World War I Navy Cross recipient who served as Captain of the USS Vincennes during World War II.
William Henry Hudson Southerland was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. He commanded several ships in Cuban waters during the Spanish–American War, and later served as Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet.
Rear Admiral Gilbert Jonathan Rowcliff was an officer of the United States Navy during the First World War and the Second World War. After early service in the Far East he specialised in gunnery, serving in that capacity on many US Navy capital ships. During World War I he served with the US Naval Force sent to join the British Grand Fleet.
Rear Admiral Tony Lee Cothron was the Director of Intelligence for the Chief of Naval Operations and the 62nd Director of Naval Intelligence.
Vice Admiral Allan Rockwell McCann, was a United States Navy officer who served in World War I and World War II.
Hugo Osterhaus was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. He was the son of Civil War Major General Peter J. Osterhaus (1823–1917) and father of Navy Admiral Hugo Wilson Osterhaus (1878–1972), and is buried on Arlington National Cemetery.
Russell Stanley Berkey was an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II.
Royal Eason Ingersoll was a United States Navy four-star admiral who served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT) from January 1, 1942 to late 1944; Commander, Western Sea Frontier from late 1944 to 1946; and Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet/Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (DCOMINCH/DCNO) from late 1944 to late 1945.
Vice Admiral Ferdinand Louis Reichmuth was an officer of the United States Navy who served in World War I and World War II.
Rear Admiral Reginald Fairfax Nicholson was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the American Civil War and Spanish–American War, was Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, and came out of retirement during World War I to serve as the first U.S. naval attaché to Ecuador and Peru. He retired as the last active-duty U.S. Navy officer to have served in the American Civil War.
Ricourt, Milagros, 2016 The Dominican Racial Imaginary: Surveying The Landscape of Race and Nation in Hispaniola Rutgers University Press, New Jersey, USA.
Vásquez Frías, Pastor, 2013 ¡Éxodo! Un siglo de migración Haitiana hacia República Dominicana, Editorial Santuario, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.
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