Thomas Tomkins (died 16 March 1555) was a 16th-century English Protestant martyr. He was a weaverfrom Shoreditch, London, and was examined by Bishop Bonner. Despite having been subjected to torture, he insisted that he did not believe in transubstantiation. As a result, he was burned to death at Smithfield on 16 March 1555. His story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs .
Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict suffering or pain, without a specific intent to do so, are not typically considered torture. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, revenge, political re-education, deterrence, coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false, or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture. Alternatively, some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation. The torturer may or may not kill or injure the victim, but torture may result in a deliberate death and serves as a form of capital punishment. Depending on the aim, even a form of torture that is intentionally fatal may be prolonged to allow the victim to suffer as long as possible. In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim.
Transubstantiation is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Smithfield is a locality in the City of London in central London, England. The principal street of the area is West Smithfield.
Hugh Latimer was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester before the Reformation, and later Church of England chaplain to King Edward VI. In 1555 under the Catholic Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford Martyrs of Anglicanism.
John Foxe was an English historian and martyrologist, the author of Actes and Monuments, an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history, but emphasizing the sufferings of English Protestants and proto-Protestants from the 14th century through the reign of Mary I. Widely owned and read by English Puritans, the book helped to mould British popular opinion about the Catholic Church for several centuries.
William Hunter was a Marian martyr burnt to death in Brentwood, England at the age of 19 on March 27, 1555, on Ingrave Road. He had lost his job in London as a silk-weaver because he refused to attend the Catholic mass, despite an order that everyone in the City of London had to attend, and had come to live with his parents in Brentwood, but got into a dispute when discovered reading the Bible for himself in Brentwood Chapel. He refused to accept the Catholic dogma of transubstantiation according to which the bread and wine of the communion become the body and blood of Jesus.
Rowland Taylor was an English Protestant martyr during the Marian Persecutions.
Robert Ferrar was a Bishop of St David's in Wales.
John Bradford (1510–1555) was an English Reformer, prebendary of St. Paul's, and martyr. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged crimes against Mary Tudor. He was burned at the stake on 1 July 1555.
The Oxford Martyrs were Protestants tried for heresy in 1555 and burnt at the stake in Oxford, England, for their religious beliefs and teachings, during the Marian persecution in England.
Juan de Villagarcía was a Spanish Dominican from Valladolid, known as the witness to one of the statements of confession and recantation by Thomas Cranmer.
The Coventry Martyrs were a disparate group of Lollard Christians executed for their beliefs in Coventry between 1512 – 1522 and in 1555. Eleven of them are commemorated by a six-metre high monument, erected in 1910 in a public garden in the city, between Little Park Street and Mile Lane; and by a mosaic constructed in 1953 inside the entrance to Broadgate House in the city centre. Some of the streets in the city’s Cheylesmore suburb are named after them. See also Cheylesmore road names.
Thomas Hawkes was an English protestant martyr who burned to death in 1555 during the Marian Persecutions rather than allow his son to be baptised into the Roman Catholic Church.
The Colchester Martyrs were 16th-century English Protestant martyrs. They were executed for heresy in Colchester, Essex, during the reigns of Henry VIII and Mary I. Their story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
Margaret Polley was an English Protestant martyr from Popingberry, Rochester, Kent. Her story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
Christopher Wade was an English Protestant martyr. His story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
The Canterbury Martyrs were 16th-century English Protestant martyrs. They were executed for heresy in Canterbury, Kent, and were the last protestants burnt during the reign of Mary I. Their story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
William Pygot was a sixteenth-century English Protestant martyr. His story was recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. For denying transubstantiation, he was burned to death at Braintree, Essex, on 28 March 1555.
The Actes and Monuments, popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, is a work of Protestant history and martyrology by John Foxe, first published in English in 1563 by John Day. It includes a polemical account of the sufferings of Protestants under the Catholic Church, with particular emphasis on England and Scotland. The book was highly influential in those countries and helped shape lasting popular notions of Catholicism there. The book went through four editions in Foxe's lifetime and a number of later editions and abridgements, including some that specifically reduced the text to a Book of Martyrs.
Michael Dunning (d.1558) was Chancellor of the Diocese of Norwich from 1554 under Mary Tudor, and with John Hopton, Bishop of Norwich, was responsible for the burning of 31 heretics. John Foxe characterised Dunning as the "bloody chancellor."
John Philpot (1516–1555) was an Archdeacon of Winchester and an English Protestant martyr whose story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. He was the third son of Sir Peter Philpot and was born at Compton, Hampshire, in 1516.
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