Thomas of Chobham (also called Thomas Chobham or Thomas of Chabham), English theologian and subdean of Salisbury, was born c. 1160, presumably in Chobham, Surrey, England, and died between 1233 and 1236 in Salisbury, England.
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne. The city is approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath.
Thomas Chobham studied in Paris in the 1180s, likely under Peter the Chanter. He is best known for his influential work on penance which combines Canon law, theology, and practical advice for confessors. It is known by many titles, and there has been much confusion over both author and incipit, which is often related as Cum miseratione domini. More fully and correctly, this should be "Cum miserationes domini sint super omnia". The title is based on Psalm 144:9.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It also plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which it is a rite, as well as among other Protestants. The word penance derives from Old French and Latin paenitentia, both of which derive from the same root meaning repentance, the desire to be forgiven. Penance and repentance, similar in their derivation and original sense, have come to symbolize conflicting views of the essence of repentance, arising from the controversy as to the respective merits of "faith" and "good works". Word derivations occur in many languages.
The incipit of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of notes, having the same purpose. The word incipit comes from Latin and means "it begins". Its counterpart taken from the ending of the text is the explicit.
Flacius Illyricus, for example, in his entry on Thomas Aquinas in his Catalogus Testium Veritatis 1556, considers this work to be by Aquinas and gives the incipit: "Commiserationes Domini sunt super omnia".
The Corpus Christianorum (CC) is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgian publisher Brepols Publishers devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts. The principal series are the Series Graeca (CCSG), Series Latina (CCSL), and the Continuatio Mediævalis (CCCM). There is also a smaller section, the Series Apocryphorum (CCSA), devoted to Apocryphal works, and a collection of autographs, the Autographa Medii Ævi (CCAMA). In the series Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Generaliumque Decreta (COGD) is published confessional documents from Churches and Ecumenical organisations in the World with start in Nicæa 325 until today. The principal series are seen in some ways as successors to Migne's Patrologiae.
In addition to the introductions and notes to the above works, see:
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The Press is located on Walton Street, opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho.
The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies (PIMS) is a research institute in the University of Toronto that is dedicated to advanced studies in the culture of the Middle Ages.
Hildegard of Bingen, also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath. She is considered to be the founder of scientific natural history in Germany.
John of Salisbury, who described himself as Johannes Parvus, was an English author, philosopher, educationalist, diplomat and bishop of Chartres, and was born at Salisbury.
Alexander Neckam(8 September 1157 – 31 March 1217) was an English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester Abbey from 1213 until his death.
Rabanus Maurus Magnentius , also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine monk, theologian, poet, encyclopedist and military writer who became archbishop of Mainz in East Francia. He was the author of the encyclopaedia De rerum naturis. He also wrote treatises on education and grammar and commentaries on the Bible. He was one of the most prominent teachers and writers of the Carolingian age, and was called "Praeceptor Germaniae," or "the teacher of Germany." In the most recent edition of the Roman Martyrology, his feast is given as February 4th and he is qualified as a Saint ('sanctus').
William of Conches was a French scholastic philosopher who sought to expand the bounds of Christian humanism by studying secular works of the classics and fostering empirical science. He was a prominent member of the School of Chartres. John of Salisbury, a bishop of Chartres and former student of William's, refers to William as the most talented grammarian after Bernard of Chartres.
Christian of Stavelot was a ninth-century Christian monk. He is sometimes referred to as Christian Druthmar or Druthmar of Aquitaine. Christian was a noted grammarian, Biblical commentator, and eschatologist. He was born in Aquitaine, southwestern France, in the early ninth century CE, and became a monk at the Benedictine monastery of Corbie. At some point in the early or mid-ninth century he was sent to the abbey of Stavelot-Malmedy in Liège, to teach Bible to the monks there. It is unknown whether he died at Stavelot, returned to Corbie or was ultimately sent elsewhere.
Petrus Comestor, also known as Pierre le Mangeur – both names, respectively, the Latin and French for "Peter the Devourer" – was a twelfth-century French theological writer and university administrator who died around 1178.
Alexander of Ashby was a celebrated English theologian and poet, who flourished about the year 1220. Scarcely anything is known of his history, except that he appears to have been prior of Canons Ashby, in Northamptonshire. Some writers make him a native of Somersetshire; others of Staffordshire; and some have confounded him with Alexander Neckam.
Saint Maximus of Turin was a Christian bishop and theological writer. He is believed to have been a native of Rhaetia.
The Abbey of Saint Victor, Paris, also known as Royal Abbey and School of Saint Victor, was an abbey near Paris, France. Its origins are connected to the decision of William of Champeaux, the Archdeacon of Paris, to retire to a small hermitage near Paris in 1108. He took on the life, vocation and observances of the Canons Regular, and his new community followed the Augustinian Rule.
Pere Marsili was a Dominican friar, chronicler, translator, and royal ambassador during the 13th and 14th centuries. In 1314 King James II of Aragon ordered him to make a Latin adaptation of a now-lost autobiography of James I of Aragon, the Llibre dels feyts. The Catalan language original famously recounted the heroics of James I, known as the "Conqueror," and was a project in which the King himself had reputedly been involved. Marsili completed the four-part work in 1322 and titled it Commentarioum de gestis Regis Jacobi primi or Commentary on the Deeds of King James I. Some historians believe he may also have written other extant works traditionally ascribed to a Pere Martell.
Hervaeus Natalis was a Dominican theologian, the 14th Master of the Dominicans, and the author of a number of works on philosophy and theology. Among his many writings may be included the Summa Totius Logicae, an opusculum once attributed to Thomas Aquinas.
Thomas Gallus of Vercelli, sometimes in early twentieth century texts called Thomas of St Victor, Thomas of Vercelli or Thomas Vercellensis, was a French theologian, a member of the School of St Victor. He is known for his commentaries on Pseudo-Dionysius and his ideas on affective theology. His elaborate mystical schemata influenced Bonaventure and The Cloud of Unknowing.
Haimo of Auxerre was a member of the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre. Although he was the author of numerous Biblical commentaries and theological texts, little of his life is known today.
Lucas de Tui was a Leonese cleric and intellectual, remembered best as a historian. He was Bishop of Tuy from 1239 until his death.
The Chronica Naierensis or Crónica najerense was a late twelfth-century chronicle of universal history composed at the Benedictine monastery of Santa María la Real in Nájera. In Latin it narrates events from Creation to its own time, with a focus on the Bible, classical history, the Visigothic in Spain, and the kingdoms of Castile and León. It was an important model for later Spanish Latin historiographers, notably the De rebus Hispaniae of Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada, the Chronicon mundi of Lucas de Tuy, and the Estoria de España of the patronage of Alfonso X of Castile.
Nicholas of Clairvaux, also Nicholas of Montiéramey was a French Benedictine monk who later became a Cistercian monk. He was a secretary of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, and the author of letters and sermons.
The Abbey of Saint-Cybard was a Benedictine monastery located just outside the northern city walls of Angoulême.
Beverly Mayne Kienzle retired in 2015 as the John H. Morison Professor of the Practice in Latin and Romance Languages at the Harvard Divinity School, Harvard University. She is a specialist in Christian Latin, Latin paleography, and medieval Christianity. She has published over seventy articles and fifteen books, including five on Hildegard of Bingen. Her latest book is an authoritative biography of her grandmother, Virginia Cary Hudson, author of the best-selling O Ye Jigs and Juleps!.