Thomas of Hvar

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Tommaso Tommasini (died in early 1463), better known as Thomas of Hvar (Serbo-Croatian : Toma Hvarski/Тома Хварски), was Bishop of Lesina (Hvar) from 23 December 1429 until his death, as well as permanent papal legate to the Kingdom of Bosnia from 1439 until 1461. [1]

Hvar island in Croatia

Hvar is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, located off the Dalmatian coast, lying between the islands of Brač, Vis and Korčula. Approximately 68 km (42.25 mi) long, with a high east-west ridge of Mesozoic limestone and dolomite, the island of Hvar is unusual in the area for having a large fertile coastal plain, and fresh water springs. Its hillsides are covered in pine forests, with vineyards, olive groves, fruit orchards and lavender fields in the agricultural areas. The climate is characterized by mild winters, and warm summers with many hours of sunshine. The island has 11,103 residents, making it the 4th most populated of the Croatian islands.

Papal legate a personal representative of the pope

A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters.

Kingdom of Bosnia medieval kingdom that evolved from the Banate of Bosnia

The Kingdom of Bosnia, or Bosnian Kingdom, was a South Slavic medieval Kingdom that evolved from the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377). Bosnia experienced de facto independence in the 13th and 14th centuries despite being a part of the Hungarian Crown Lands. Its difficult terrain and remoteness enabled the Bosnians to maneuver between their two powerful neighbors, Hungary and Serbia, usually managing to avoid subordination to either. Several capable rulers allowed Bosnia briefly to play the role of a regional power in the 14th century. After 1290, Bosnia enjoyed virtual independence from Hungary and gained significant territory in Dalmatia at Serbia's expense. King Tvrtko I acquired portions of western Serbia and most of the Adriatic coast south of the Neretva river: during the latter part of his reign, Bosnia briefly became the strongest state in the Balkans peninsula. However, feudal fragmentation remained strong in Bosnia, and after his death the country lost its importance. The Ottoman Empire annexed portions of eastern Bosnia in the 1440s and 1450s and went on to conquer Herzegovina until the last fortress fell in 1481.

Thomas was Venetian by birth, but he "must have known Slavic" both through his episcopate on the Croat-inhabited island and through his long contact with Bosnians. He significantly influenced the relations between the Holy See and Bosnia, as well as papal views on the indigenous Bosnian Church, but little is known about his personality, politics, activity in the kingdom or relations with Bosnian Franciscans. John Van Antwerp Fine, Jr. argues that Thomas deliberately misinformed the Papacy about the Bosnian Church, fabricating claims of dualism. [1]

Bosnian Church

The Bosnian Church was a Christian church in medieval Bosnia that was independent of and considered heretical by both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox hierarchies.

Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other. It is an umbrella term that covers a diversity of views from various religions, including both traditional religions and scriptural religions.

Bishop Thomas of Hvar probably approached his namesake, King Thomas of Bosnia, in 1443, when Pope Eugene IV hoped to draw Bosnia into the Crusade of Varna. He probably discussed the Catholic Church's issue with heresy in Bosnia at that time. [1] In 1446, he converted the King himself from Bosnian Christianity to Roman Catholicism. [2]

Pope Eugene IV Italian pope

Pope Eugene IV, born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the most recent pope to have taken the name "Eugene" upon his election.

Crusade of Varna

The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Catholic Church Christian church led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2016. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

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Radogost or Radigost was a Catholic clergyman who served as Bishop of Bosnia in the late 12th century. As his vernacular name suggests, he was a local cleric and was chosen by Bosnians themselves. Radogost was consecrated by Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa, in 1189. On that occasion, Radogost brought presents for Pope Clement III from Ban Kulin, ruler of Bosnia. The historian John Van Antwerp Fine, Jr. dismisses the chronicler Mavro Orbini's date of 1171 because there is no evidence that Kulin was already Ban of Bosnia at that time.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Fine 2007, p. 238.
  2. Fine 2007, p. 241.

Bibliography

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Giorgio
Bishop of Lesina
1429–1463
Succeeded by
Nicolò delle Croci