In computer science, three-address code
t1 := t2 + t3. The name derives from the use of three operands in these statements even though instructions with fewer operands may occur.
Since three-address code is used as an intermediate language within compilers, the operands will most likely not be concrete memory addresses or processor registers, but rather symbolic addresses that will be translated into actual addresses during register allocation. It is also not uncommon that operand names are numbered sequentially since three-address code is typically generated by the compiler.
A refinement of three-address code is A-normal form (ANF).
In three-address code, this would be broken down into several separate instructions. These instructions translate more easily to assembly language. It is also easier to detect common sub-expressions for shortening the code. In the following example, one calculation is composed of several smaller ones:
# Calculate one solution to the [[Quadratic equation]]. x = (-b + sqrt(b^2 - 4*a*c)) / (2*a)
t1 := b * b t2 := 4 * a t3 := t2 * c t4 := t1 - t3 t5 := sqrt(t4) t6 := 0 - b t7 := t5 + t6 t8 := 2 * a t9 := t7 / t8 x := t9
Three-address code may have conditional and unconditional jumps and methods of accessing memory. It may also have methods of calling functions, or it may reduce these to jumps. In this way, three-address code may be useful in control-flow analysis. In the following C-like example, a loop stores the squares of the numbers between 0 and 9:
t1 := 0 ; initialize i L1: if t1 >= 10 goto L2 ; conditional jump t2 := t1 * t1 ; square of i t3 := t1 * 4 ; word-align address t4 := b + t3 ; address to store i*i *t4 := t2 ; store through pointer t1 := t1 + 1 ; increase i goto L1 ; repeat loop L2:
In computer programming, assembly language, often abbreviated asm, is any low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the instructions in the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Because assembly depends on the machine code instructions, every assembler has its own assembly language which is designed for exactly one specific computer architecture. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code.
The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. It tells the computer's memory, arithmetic and logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction causes the CPU to perform a very specific task, such as a load, a store, a jump, or an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) operation on one or more units of data in the CPU's registers or memory.
The PDP-8 is a 12-bit minicomputer that was produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It was the first commercially successful minicomputer, with over 50,000 units being sold over the model's lifetime. Its basic design follows the pioneering LINC but has a smaller instruction set, which is an expanded version of the PDP-5 instruction set. Similar machines from DEC are the PDP-12 which is a modernized version of the PDP-8 and LINC concepts, and the PDP-14 industrial controller system.
In computing, an optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program. Common requirements are to minimize a program's execution time, memory requirement, and power consumption.
In computer science, threaded code is a programming technique where the code has a form that essentially consists entirely of calls to subroutines. It is often used in compilers, which may generate code in that form or be implemented in that form themselves. The code may be processed by an interpreter or it may simply be a sequence of machine code call instructions.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer. It is also referred to as architecture or computer architecture. A realization of an ISA, such as a central processing unit (CPU), is called an implementation.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:
A one-instruction set computer (OISC), sometimes called an ultimate reduced instruction set computer (URISC), is an abstract machine that uses only one instruction – obviating the need for a machine language opcode. With a judicious choice for the single instruction and given infinite resources, an OISC is capable of being a universal computer in the same manner as traditional computers that have multiple instructions. OISCs have been recommended as aids in teaching computer architecture and have been used as computational models in structural computing research.
In computing, code generation is the process by which a compiler's code generator converts some intermediate representation of source code into a form that can be readily executed by a machine.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In contrast to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or may automate significant areas of computing systems, making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable than when using a lower-level language. The amount of abstraction provided defines how "high-level" a programming language is.
x86 Assembly Language is a family of backward-compatible assembly languages, which provide some level of compatibility all the way back to the Intel 8008 introduced in April 1972. x86 assembly languages are used to produce object code for the x86 class of processors. Like all assembly languages, it uses short mnemonics to represent the fundamental instructions that the CPU in a computer can understand and follow. Compilers sometimes produce assembly code as an intermediate step when translating a high level program into machine code. Regarded as a programming language, assembly coding is machine-specific and low level. Assembly languages are more typically used for detailed and time critical applications such as small real-time embedded systems or operating system kernels and device drivers.
In computing, an opcode is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed. Beside the opcode itself, most instructions also specify the data they will process, in the form of operands. In addition to opcodes used in the instruction set architectures of various CPUs, which are hardware devices, they can also be used in abstract computing machines as part of their byte code specifications.
In compiler design, static single assignment form is a property of an intermediate representation (IR), which requires that each variable is assigned exactly once, and every variable is defined before it is used. Existing variables in the original IR are split into versions, new variables typically indicated by the original name with a subscript in textbooks, so that every definition gets its own version. In SSA form, use-def chains are explicit and each contains a single element.
In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer. In some cases, the term refers to a software scheme that simulates a stack machine.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. The various addressing modes that are defined in a given instruction set architecture define how the machine language instructions in that architecture identify the operand(s) of each instruction. An addressing mode specifies how to calculate the effective memory address of an operand by using information held in registers and/or constants contained within a machine instruction or elsewhere.
The IBM System/3 was an IBM midrange computer introduced in 1969, and marketed until 1985. It was produced by IBM Rochester in Minnesota as a low-end business computer aimed at smaller organizations that still used IBM 1400 series computers or unit record equipment. The first member of what IBM refers to as their "midrange" line, it also introduced the RPG II programming language.
The Burroughs B2500 through Burroughs B4900 was a series of mainframe computers developed and manufactured by Burroughs Corporation in Pasadena, California, United States, from 1966 to 1991. They were aimed at the business world with an instruction set optimized for the COBOL programming language. They were also known as Burroughs Medium Systems, by contrast with the Burroughs Large Systems and Burroughs Small Systems.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed.
The Mill architecture is a novel belt machine-based computer architecture for general-purpose computing. It has been under development since about 2003 by Ivan Godard and his startup Mill Computing, Inc., formerly named Out Of The Box Computing, in East Palo Alto, California. Mill Computing claims it has a "10x single-thread power/performance gain over conventional out-of-order superscalar architectures" but "runs the same programs, without rewrite".