Last updated
Developer(s) Daniel Fernández
Stable release
3.1.1 [1] / December 6, 2022;3 months ago (2022-12-06)
Written in Java
Operating system Cross-platform
Standard(s) XML, XHTML, HTML5
Type Template Engine
License Apache License 2.0

Thymeleaf is a Java XML/XHTML/HTML5 template engine that can work both in web (servlet-based) and non-web environments. It is better suited for serving XHTML/HTML5 at the view layer of MVC-based web applications, but it can process any XML file even in offline environments. It provides full Spring Framework integration.


In web applications Thymeleaf aims to be a complete substitute for JavaServer Pages (JSP), and implements the concept of Natural Templates: template files that can be directly opened in browsers and that still display correctly as web pages.

Thymeleaf is open-source software, licensed under the Apache License 2.0.


From the project's website: [2]

Thymeleaf example

The following example produces an HTML5 table with rows for each item of a List<Product> variable called allProducts.

<table><thead><tr><thth:text="#{}">Name</th><thth:text="#{msgs.headers.price}">Price</th></tr></thead><tbody><trth:each="prod : ${allProducts}"><tdth:text="${}">Oranges</td><tdth:text="${#numbers.formatDecimal(prod.price,1,2)}">0.99</td></tr></tbody></table>

This piece of code includes:

Also, this fragment of (X)HTML code can be perfectly displayed by a browser as a prototype, without being processed at all: it is a natural template.

See also

Related Research Articles

A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">HTML</span> Hypertext Markup Language

The HyperText Markup Language or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It is often assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">XML</span> Markup language by the W3C for encoding of data

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The World Wide Web Consortium's XML 1.0 Specification of 1998 and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML.

Jakarta Faces, formerly Jakarta Server Faces and JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a Java specification for building component-based user interfaces for web applications and was formalized as a standard through the Java Community Process being part of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition. It is also an MVC web framework that simplifies the construction of user interfaces (UI) for server-based applications by using reusable UI components in a page.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apache Struts 1</span> Open-source web application framework

Apache Struts 1 is an open-source web application framework for developing Java EE web applications. It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture. It was originally created by Craig McClanahan and donated to the Apache Foundation in May 2000. Formerly located under the Apache Jakarta Project and known as Jakarta Struts, it became a top-level Apache project in 2005.

A user interface markup language is a markup language that renders and describes graphical user interfaces and controls. Many of these markup languages are dialects of XML and are dependent upon a pre-existing scripting language engine, usually a JavaScript engine, for rendering of controls and extra scriptability.

Apache Wicket, commonly referred to as Wicket, is a component-based web application framework for the Java programming language conceptually similar to JavaServer Faces and Tapestry. It was originally written by Jonathan Locke in April 2004. Version 1.0 was released in June 2005. It graduated into an Apache top-level project in June 2007.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apache Tapestry</span> Open-source web application framework

Apache Tapestry is an open-source component-oriented Java web application framework conceptually similar to JavaServer Faces and Apache Wicket. Tapestry was created by Howard Lewis Ship, and was adopted by the Apache Software Foundation as a top-level project in 2006.

Open Power Template is a web template engine written in PHP 5. A common strategy in designing web application is separation of the application logic from the presentation. OPT is a tool for implementing such separation. The presentation layer is represented by templates, text files with HTML code and extra instructions controlling the data substitution.

The Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform. The framework's core features can be used by any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE platform. Although the framework does not impose any specific programming model, it has become popular in the Java community as an addition to the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) model. The Spring Framework is open source.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Web template system</span> System in web publishing

A web template system in web publishing allows web designers and developers work with web templates to automatically generate custom web pages, such as the results from a search. This reuses static web page elements while defining dynamic elements based on web request parameters. Web templates support static content, providing basic structure and appearance. Developers can implement templates from content management systems, web application frameworks, and HTML editors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">RichFaces</span>

RichFaces is an open source Ajax-enabled component library for JavaServer Faces, hosted by JBoss. It allows easy integration of Ajax capabilities into enterprise application development. It reached its end-of-life in June 2016.

Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.

In computing, Facelets is an open-source Web template system under the Apache license and the default view handler technology for Jakarta Server Faces. The language requires valid input XML documents to work. Facelets supports all of the JSF UI components and focuses completely on building the JSF component tree, reflecting the view for a JSF application.

Apache Click is a page and component oriented web application framework for the Java language and is built on top of the Java Servlet API.

Java view technologies and frameworks are web-based software libraries that provide the user interface, or "view-layer", of Java web applications. Such application frameworks are used for defining web pages and handling the HTTP requests (clicks) generated by those web pages. As a sub-category of web frameworks, view-layer frameworks often overlap to varying degrees with web frameworks that provide other functionality for Java web applications.

ZK is an open-source Ajax Web application framework, written in Java, that enables creation of graphical user interfaces for Web applications with little required programming knowledge.

XHTML+RDFa is an extended version of the XHTML markup language for supporting RDF through a collection of attributes and processing rules in the form of well-formed XML documents. XHTML+RDFa is one of the techniques used to develop Semantic Web content by embedding rich semantic markup. Version 1.1 of the language is a superset of XHTML 1.1, integrating the attributes according to RDFa Core 1.1. In other words, it is an RDFa support through XHTML Modularization.

A document type declaration, or DOCTYPE, is an instruction that associates a particular XML or SGML document with a document type definition (DTD). In the serialized form of the document, it manifests as a short string of markup that conforms to a particular syntax.


  1. "Thymeleaf 3.1: What's new and how to migrate - Thymeleaf".
  2. "Features - Thymeleaf: Java XML/XHTML/HTML5 template engine". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-16. Thymeleaf Features