Tia (overseer of treasury)

Last updated
Column with the depiction of Tia and his wife Tia Tia and tia1.JPG
Column with the depiction of Tia and his wife Tia

Tia was an ancient Egyptian high official under king Ramses II. His main title was that of an overseer of the treasuries. [1] Tia was married to a woman with the same name, the princess Tia who was sister of Ramses II.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

The overseer of the treasuries was an important official at the ancient Egyptian court of the Old and the New Kingdom. The title is first attested in the Fourth Dynasty. The title is not common in the Middle Kingdom, but is in the New Kingdom one of the most important ones at the royal court. The treasury was the place in the royal palace where precious materials were stored, such as metal objects, but also linen. Therefore, the overseer of the treasuries was basically responsible for administrating the resources of the country. The title is also attested in the Late Period. The writing of the title varies between overseer of the treasury and overseer of the two treasuries. It is not always clear whether this relates to different functions.

Tia (princess) Ancient Egyptian princess during the 19th dynasty

Tia or Tiya was an Ancient Egyptian princess during the 19th dynasty.

Contents

Career and Family

Not much is known about the early years. One of the earliest mentions of Tia is on a block now in the University of Chicago Oriental Institute (no. 10507). Tia and a man named Amenwashu are shown before King Seti I and the then crown-prince Ramesses II. Habachi conjectured that Amenwashu was Tia's father, but there is no evidence to support this idea. The identification of the man Tia on the Chicago stela with the official Tia is based on the rarity of the name. It is not known when Tia married Ramesses's sister Tia. [2]

University of Chicago Oriental Institute archaeology museum and research center

The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern ("Orient") studies, and archaeology museum. It was founded for the university by professor James Henry Breasted with funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. It conducts research on ancient civilizations throughout the Near East, including at its facility, Chicago House, in Luxor, Egypt. The Institute publicly exhibits an extensive collection of artifacts related to ancient civilizations at its on-campus building in the Hyde Park, Chicago community.

Seti I second pharaoh of the 19th dynasty in ancient egypt

Menmaatre Seti I was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today.

Ramesses II Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor".

Tia had several honorific titles including hereditary prince and governor, seal-bearer of the King, sole companion, overseer of the secrets of the royal palace, favorite of the Horus in his palace, eyes of the King, and ears of the King. Tia's executive titles include, King's scribe, fanbearer on the right of the King and his most common title: overseer of the treasury in the Temple of Usermaatre Setepenre in the Domain of Amun. [2]

A limestone block shows Tia and Tia in the presence of Queen Tuya. This scene likely comes from the tomb in Saqqara is now in the Royal Ontario Museum (no 955-79-2). Tuya is said to be a God's Wife and a King's Mother. [3] Tia is clearly stated to be the King's sister and this scene shows that she was indeed the sister of Ramesses II.

Royal Ontario Museum Museum in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the largest museums in North America and the largest in Canada. It attracts more than one million visitors every year, making the ROM the most-visited museum in Canada. The museum is north of Queen's Park, in the University of Toronto district, with its main entrance on Bloor Street West. Museum subway station is named after the ROM and, since a 2008 renovation, is decorated to resemble the institution's collection.

Tomb at Saqqara

Tia and Tia are best known from their tomb at Saqqara [2] which was placed between the tomb of the 18th Dynasty general Horemhab (the later king) and the overseer of the treasuries Maya, the latter had the same title as Tia. The tomb is not very well preserved. The main entrance was on the east side. There was a first courtyard and a second one that was adorned with columns. At the back there were chapels and at the very back a small pyramid. [4]

Saqqara village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.

Tomb of Horemheb

The Memphite tomb of Horemheb is located in the Saqqara necropolis, near Memphis, Egypt. It was constructed before Horemheb ascended to the throne and was never used for his burial, since he later built the Theban tomb KV57 for this purpose. His two wives Mutnedjmet and Amenia were buried within the structure.

The outer courtyard of the tomb contained two smaller tomb-chapels. One of the chapels belonged to Iurudef, while the name of the owner of the second chapel is not known. A stela of an official belonging to the household of Tia, named Panakhtenniut, was found nearby. There is, however, no evidence that he was the owner of the chapel. [2]

Tia was already known from several objects before his tomb was discovered. A pyramidion reached England in 1722 and was brought there from Alexandria. It is only known from old drawings, but they are good enough to read the name and titles. [5]

Tia was once buried in a set of three coffins. There was a wooden inner, anthropoid coffin, a middle granite, anthropoid coffin and an outer, wooden, rectangular coffin. The coffins were only found in small fragments. [6]

Chapel at Kafr el-Gebel

Not all materials mentioning Tia and Tia comes from the tomb in Saqqara. Ahmed Mahmoud Moussa discovered a funerary chapel at Kafr el-Gebel which is located to the south of the Giza Pyramid Plateau at the edge of the desert. [2] In Chapel G a stela showing Ramesses II before Osiris and the deified Seti I. A lower register of the stela depicts Queen Tuya followed by Tia and Tia before the goddess Isis and Ahmose (or a statue of the King). [7]

Inscriptions

The 1997 excavation report contains a list of known inscriptions associated with Tia and Tia. [2] Below is a small sample of those inscriptions. These inscriptions are also mentioned in Kenneth Kitchen's Ramesside Inscriptions or are otherwise notable. [3]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Gebel el-Silsila Place in Aswan Governorate, Egypt

Gebel el-Silsila or Gebel Silsileh is 65 km north of Aswan in Upper Egypt, where the cliffs on both sides close to the narrowest point along the length of the entire Nile. The location is between Edfu in the north towards Lower Egypt and Kom Ombo in the south towards Upper Egypt. The name Kheny means "The Place of Rowing". It was used as a major quarry site on both sides of the Nile from at least the 18th Dynasty to Greco-Roman times. Silsila is famous for its New Kingdom stelai and cenotaphs.

Prince Khaemweset was the fourth son of Ramesses II, who was born c. 1303 BCE; died July or August 1213 BCE; reigned 1279–1213 BCE, and the second son by his queen Isetnofret. He is by far the best known son of Ramesses II, and his contributions to Egyptian society were remembered for centuries after his death. Khaemweset has been described as "the first Egyptologist" due to his efforts in identifying and restoring historic buildings, tombs and temples.

Meritamen Ancient Egyptian princess and queen

Meritamen was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great.

Tuya (queen) Ancient Egyptian queen consort

Tuya was the wife of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt and mother of Tia, Ramesses II, Nebchasetnebet, and perhaps Henutmire.

Henutmire Ancient Egyptian princess

Henutmire was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen. She was one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.

Paser (vizier) vizier and High Priest of Amun

The Ancient Egyptian Noble Paser was vizier, in the reigns of Seti I and Ramesses II, during the 19th dynasty. He would later also become High Priest of Amun.

Setau Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramesses IIs reign

Setau was the Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramesses II's reign. Contemporary records show that Setau served in this position from Year 38 until at least Year 63 of Ramesses II's reign. Setau was "a graduate of the royal school" and already enjoyed an impressive record of royal service which is detailed in a long autobiographical inscription carved at Wadi es-Sebua. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was built for Ramesses II by Setau around 1236 BC or Year 44 of this pharaoh's reign. Eleven of his stela, now in the Cairo Museum, were found in the courtyard of this temple and make it possible to establish his career and understand the precise duties of a viceroy. Setau states:

Heqanakht was Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Ramesses II. His titles include: King's son of Kush, overseer of the Southern Lands, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, Messenger to every land, Hereditary prince, royal sealbearer.

Paser I was the Viceroy of Kush during the reigns of Ay and likely Horemheb. Reisner mentions that the only datable inscriptions for Paser belong to the reign of Ay. The next known Viceroy however is Amenemopet, who is dated to the reign of Seti I. Hence it's possible that Paser I served during the reigns of Ay, Horemheb

Pahemnetjer Ancient Egyptian high priest of Ptah

Pahemnetjer(p3-ḥm-nṯr; "servant of the god", "priest") was a High Priest of Ptah during the reign of Ramesses II. Pahemnetjer succeeded Huy as High Priest of Ptah and was in turn succeeded by his son Didia.

Isetnofret II ancient Egyptian queen consort

Isetnofret was one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Merenptah.

Panehesy was a Vizier of Ancient Egypt. He served during the reign of Merenptah during the 19th Dynasty.

TT214

The Theban Tomb TT214 is located in Deir el-Medina, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor.

Khawy ancient Egyptian guardian in Deir el-Medina

Khawy was a guardian in the Place of Truth and servitor of Amun of Opet (Luxor) from the reign of Ramesses II. He lived in the workers village Deir el-Medina. Khawy is known from his tomb TT214, his house and several other inscriptions.

Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Louvre curatorial department of the Louvre

The Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Louvre of Paris, comprising over 50,000 pieces, includes artifacts from the Nile civilizations which date from 4,000 BC to the 4th century. The collection, among the world's largest, overviews Egyptian life spanning Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom, the New Kingdom, Coptic art, and the Roman, Ptolemaic, and Byzantine periods.

QV71 Tomb of Princess-Queen Bintanath


QV71 is the tomb of Bintanath, the daughter and Great Wife of Ramesses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. It was mentioned by Champollion and Lepsius, and later excavated by Ernesto Schiaparelli.

QV80


QV80 is the tomb of (Mut-)Tuya, the Great Royal Wife of Seti I, and the mother of Ramses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens.

Ptahemwia was an Ancient Egyptian official who lived under king Ramses II in the 19th Dynasty, around 1250 BC.

Hori was an ancient Egyptian High Priest of Osiris at Abydos, during the reign of pharaohs Ramesses II.

References

  1. Wolfgang Helck: Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs, 1958, p. 408, 516.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Geoffrey Thorndike Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Royal Monument of the Ramesside Period in the Memphite Necropolis, London 1993, ISBN   9780856981210
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Kitchen, Kenneth A. Ramesside Inscriptions, Translated and Annotated Translations: Ramesses II, His Contemporaries (Ramesside Inscriptions Translations) (Volume III), Wiley-Blackwell. 2001, pp 264-270 ISBN   978-0631184287
  4. T. G. Martin: The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, London 1991, ISBN   0500390266, p. 102
  5. Jaromir Malek: Two Monuments of the Tias, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 60 (1974), pp. 165-167, pl. XXXV
  6. Maarten J. Raven, Vincent Verschoor, Marije Vugts, Rene van Walsem: The Memphite Tomb of Horemhab, Commander in Chief of Tutankhamun, V, the Forecourt and the Area South of the Tomb with Some Notes on the Tomb of Tia, Turnhout 2011, ISBN   978-2503531106, pp. 166-176
  7. T. Bacs, Ahmose at Rosetau: A curious Early Ramesside Attestation, Cultus deorum. Studia religionum ad historiam. in: In memoriam István Tóth. Vol. 1, 2008, pp 111-122, Editors: Á. Szabó; P. Vargyas
  8. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 333, pages 47-48 and Plate 98
  9. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 331, pages 46-47 and Plates 59-7
  10. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 330, pages 46 and Plate 95
  11. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia:: Relief 40, pages 22 and Plate 27, 139-140
  12. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 332, pages 47 and Plate 165
  13. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 109, page 37 and Plates 57, 165
  14. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 101, page 7-9, 34-35 and Plates 57, 162-163
  15. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Cat. 7, page 66-67 (including fig 4 showing the location of the fragments on the sarcophagus) and Plates 103, 170-171
  16. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 335, pages 48
  17. Martin: The Tomb of Tia and Tia: Relief 107, pages 36-37 and Plates 58, 164