Tiberius Claudius Julianus

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Tiberius Claudius Julianus was a Roman senator and literary figure who held several offices in the imperial service during the later second century AD. He was suffect consul during the nundinium of September-October 154 with Sextus Calpurnius Agricola as his colleague. [1]

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum.

Nundinium, a Latin word derived from the word nundinum signifying the cycle of days observed by the Romans, which came to be used under the Empire to indicate a period of consulship. When, under the Empire, several pairs of consuls were created in one year, the period of a single consulship was called a nundinium.

Sextus Calpurnius Agricola politician (0125-0169)

Sextus Calpurnius Agricola was a Roman senator and general active during the 2nd century. He was consul suffectus with Tiberius Claudius Julianus for the nundinium of September-October 154. Agricola is known primarily from inscriptions.

Contents

Julianus came from a well-to-do family in Roman Asia Minor. His grandmother, Julia Quintilia Isauria, was the daughter of Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, consul in 92. [2]

Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus Roman senator

Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus commonly known as Celsus was an Ancient Greek Roman citizen who became a senator, and served as suffect consul as the colleague of Lucius Stertinius Avitus. Celsus Polemaeanus was a wealthy and popular citizen and benefactor of Ephesus, and was buried in a sarcophagus beneath the famous Library of Celsus, which was built as a mausoleum in his honor by his son Tiberius Julius Aquila Polemaeanus.

Literary connections

Julianus is known to have had a number of contacts or interactions with literary figures of his generation, most prominently the orator Marcus Cornelius Fronto. Edward Champlin includes him, along with Gaius Aufidius Victorinus and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, as "marked out as a special intimate of Fronto's." Champlin notes that while Victorinus received five of the surviving letters of the rhetor Fronto, Julianus received four, adding that "in a fit of despair Fronto could consider Iulianus to be his only remaining friend". [3]

Marcus Cornelius Fronto, best known as Fronto, was Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate. Of Berber origin, he was born at Cirta in Numidia. He was suffect consul for the nundinium of July-August 142 with Gaius Laberius Priscus as his colleague. Emperor Antoninus Pius appointed him tutor to his adopted sons and future emperors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.

Edward Champlin is a Professor of Classics, Cotsen Professor of Humanities, and former Master of Butler College at Princeton University. He teaches Roman history, Roman law, and Latin literature and has written several books regarding these subjects. He is also the co-editor of The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edition, volume 10, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.–A.D. 69 (1996).

Gaius Aufidius Victorinus was a Roman senator and general of the second century. A friend of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and the son-in-law of the advocate and orator Marcus Cornelius Fronto, he was twice consul and governor of several Roman provinces.

Three of Fronto's surviving letters to him provide information about Julianus. The first (Ad Am. I.5) ostensibly is a letter of commendation on behalf of a young man named Calvisius Faustinianus for a post in Julianus' provincial army; but as Champlin notes, Fronto brushes aside all matters of Faustinianus' military skills to praise the young man's eloquence, challenging Julianus to test the man's judicial ability, and his literary taste. The next (Ad Am. I.19), which Champlin notes is difficult to read, "appears to treat of a literary quarrel with that eternal disciple, Aulus Gellius". [4] The third (Ad Am. I.20) concerns a provincial lawsuit, where Julianus has asked for Fronto's intervention; the letter mentions one Valerianus, whom Champlin identifies with a grammaticus who was the teaching colleague of Pertinax. [4]

Aulus Gellius Latin author and grammarian

Aulus Gellius was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome. He was educated in Athens, after which he returned to Rome. He is famous for his Attic Nights, a commonplace book, or compilation of notes on grammar, philosophy, history, antiquarianism, and other subjects, preserving fragments of the works of many authors who might otherwise be unknown today.

Pertinax 2nd-century Roman emperor

Publius Helvius Pertinax was a Roman military leader and Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193. He succeeded Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.

Champlin offers other possible connections for Julianus. [5] The Suda mentions that the sophist Damophilius was patronized by one Julianus who might be Claudius Julianus, although he has been identified with Didius Julianus. [6] Another possible connection is with Herodes Atticus: in his Lives of the Sophists Philostratus mentions a letter Herodes wrote to a Julianus wherein he describes his slave nicknamed "Hercules of Herodes", [7] although this Julianus has also been identified with an Antoninus Julianus from Hispania, whom Aulus Gellius recounts got the better of his opponents in a contest at a literary banquet over the quality of Greek versus Latin poetry. [8]

<i>Suda</i> literary work

The Suda or Souda is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας). It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers. The derivation is probably from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, Suidas, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name.

Didius Julianus 2nd-century Roman emperor

Didius Julianus was the emperor of Rome for nine weeks from March to June 193, during the Year of the Five Emperors.

Herodes Atticus ancient greek rhetorician

Herodes Atticus, or Atticus Herodes, was a distinguished and rich Greek aristocrat and sophist who served as a Roman senator. Appointed consul at Rome in 143, he was the first Greek to hold the rank of consul ordinarius, as opposed to consul suffectus. In Latin, his full name was given as Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes. According to Philostratus, Herodes Atticus was a notable proponent of the Second Sophistic. M.I. Finley described Herodes Atticus as "patron of the arts and letters, public benefactor on an imperial scale, not only in Athens but elsewhere in Greece and Asia Minor, holder of many important posts, friend and kinsman of emperors."

Imperial career

His cursus honorum is only imperfectly known. There is evidence that Julianus was legatus or commander of Legio XI Claudia, stationed at Durostorum (Silistra); Géza Alföldy dates the tenure of his commission as starting from around the year 145 to 148. [9] Following his consulate, Julianus is attested as governor of Germania Inferior in the year 160; Alföldy estimates the actual span of his governorship as extending from 160 to 163. [10]

<i>Cursus honorum</i> The sequential order of public offices held by politicians in Ancient Rome

The cursus honorum was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.

<i>Legatus</i> general in the Roman army

A legatus was a high-ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high-ranking general officer. Initially used to delegate power, the term became formalised under Augustus as the officer in command of a legion.

Legio XI Claudia Roman legion

Legio undecima Claudia was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. XI Claudia dates back to the two legions recruited by Julius Caesar to invade Gallia in 58 BC, and it existed at least until the early 5th century, guarding lower Danube in Durostorum. The emblem of the legion is not known; it could have been, as all of the Caesar's legions, the bull or possibly the she-wolf lactating the twins.

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References

  1. Werner Eck, "Die Fasti consulares der Regungszeit des Antoninus Pius, eine Bestandsaufnahme seit Géza Alföldys Konsulat und Senatorenstand" in Studia epigraphica in memoriam Géza Alföldy, hg. W. Eck, B. Feher, and P. Kovács (Bonn, 2013), p. 80
  2. Mireille Corbier, L'aerarium saturni et l'aerarium militare; Administration et prosopographie sénatoriale (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1974), pp. 377f
  3. Champlin, Fronto and Antonine Rome (Cambridge: Harvard, 1980), pp. 34f
  4. 1 2 Champlin, Fronto, p. 36
  5. Champlin, Fronto, p. 154 n. 30
  6. "Δαμόφιλος", Suda website
  7. Vita Sophistae, 552
  8. Attic Nights, xix.9
  9. Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), p. 300
  10. Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 227
Political offices
Preceded by
Marcus Valerius Etruscus (?),
and Lucius Aemilius Juncus (?)

as consules suffecti
Suffect consul of the Roman Empire
154
with Sextus Calpurnius Agricola
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Statius Severus,
and Titus Junius Severus

as consules suffecti