Tibula (Greek: Τιβουλα, Ptol.), was an ancient town of Sardinia, near the northern extremity of the island, which appears to have been the customary landing-place for travelers coming from Corsica; for which reason the Itineraries give no less than four lines of route, taking their departure from Tibula as a starting-point. (Itin. Ant. pp. 78-83.)
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island.
Its position is a matter of great uncertainty. That assigned to it by Ptolemy would place it on the site of Castelsardo (province of Sassari) on the north coast of the island, and only about 30 km from Porto Torres, but this is wholly incompatible with the statements of the Itineraries, and must certainly be erroneous. Indeed, Ptolemy himself places the Tibulati or Tibulates or Tibulatii (Τιβουλάτιοι), who must have been closely connected with the town of that name, in the extreme north of the island (Ptol. iii. 3. § 6), and all the data derived from the Itineraries concur in the same result. The position assigned it by De la Marmora, and adopted by Smith is the port or small bay called Porto di Lungo Sardo, almost close to the northernmost point of the island, the Errebantium Promontorium of Ptolemy. (De la Marmora, Voy. en Sardaigne, vol. ii. pp. 421-32, where the whole question is fully examined and discussed.) The editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World place Tibula at Santa Teresa Gallura (province of Olbia-Tempio).
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship. The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, however, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he ever lived anywhere other than Alexandria. He died there around AD 168.
Castelsardo is a town and comune in Sardinia, Italy, located in the northwest of the island within the Province of Sassari, at the east end of the Gulf of Asinara.
The Province of Sassari is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital is the city of Sassari. As of 2017, the province had a population of 493,357 inhabitants.
Porto Torres is a comune and city in the Province of Sassari, northern Sardinia, Italy.
Sulci or Sulki, was one of the most considerable cities of ancient Sardinia, situated in the southwest corner of the island, on a small island, now called Isola di Sant'Antioco, which is, however, joined to the mainland by a narrow isthmus or neck of sand. South of this isthmus, between the island and the mainland, is an extensive bay, now called the Golfo di Palmas, which was known in ancient times as the Sulcitanus Portus (Ptol.).
Embrun is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Usellus is a town, comune (municipality) and former bishopric in the Province of Oristano in the Italian region Sardinia.
Laodicea Combusta or Laodicea, and later known as Claudiolaodicea, was a Hellenistic city in central Anatolia, in the region of Pisidia; its site is currently occupied by Ladik, Konya Province, in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Elaea or Elaia was the ancient name of a promontory on the northeast coast of Crete, Greece, which was mentioned by Ptolemy,, on which was a temple of Zeus Diktaios. The site is near the modern town of Palaikastron.
Amphimalla or Amphimalion, was an ancient town on the north coast of Crete, Greece, situated on the bay named after it, which corresponds, according to some, to the Almyros Bay (Armiro), and, according to others, to Suda Bay.
The Praetutii, were an ancient Italic tribe of central Italy. They are thought to have lived around Interamnia, which became modern Teramo, and to have given their name to Abruzzo. The ancient accounts, however, are substantially confused, when it comes to more precise location and details.
Fordongianus, is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Oristano in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) northwest of Cagliari and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of Oristano. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,037 and an area of 39.4 square kilometres (15.2 sq mi).
Neapolis meaning "New City", was an ancient city of Sardinia, and apparently one of the most considerable places on that island. It was situated on the west coast, at the southern extremity of the Gulf of Oristano, at the present-day località of Santa Maria di Nabui, in the comune of Guspini, Province of Medio Campidano.
The Aquae Neapolitanae or Aquae Calidae Neapolitanorum are springs and their adjoining population nucleus mentioned by Ptolemy as well as in the Antonine Itinerary, which places them at a considerable distance inland from Neapolis, on the road from Othoca to Caralis, Sardinia, Italy. They are identified with the mineral sources now known as the Bagni di Sardara, on the high road from Cagliari to Oristano.
Nerulum was an ancient town in the interior of Lucania, mentioned by Livy during the wars of the Romans in that country, when it was taken by assault by the consul Lucius Aemilius Barbula, 317 BCE. The only other notice of it is found in the Itineraries, from which we learn that it was situated on the high-road from Capua to Rhegium, at the point of junction with another line of road which led from Venusia by Potentia and Grumentum towards the frontiers of Bruttium. The names and distances in this part of the Tabula are too corrupt and confused to be of any service: the Itinerary of Antoninus places it 14 miles north of Muranum, the site of which is clearly ascertained at Morano Calabro. If the former distance be adopted as correct, it must have been situated at, or in the neighbourhood of, Rotonda, near the sources of the river Lao. The editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World place Nerulum at Castelluccio.
Agathyrnum or Agathyrna, was an ancient city on the north coast of Sicily between Tyndaris and Calacte. It was supposed to have derived its name from Agathyrnus, a son of Aeolus, who is said to have settled in this part of Sicily. But though it may be inferred from this story that it was an ancient city, and probably of Sicelian origin, we find no mention of it in history until after Sicily became a Roman province. During the Second Punic War it became the headquarters of a band of robbers and freebooters, who extended their ravages over the neighboring country, but were reduced by the consul Laevinus in 210 BCE, who transported 4000 of them to Rhegium. It very probably was deprived on this occasion of the municipal rights conceded to most of the Sicilian towns, which may account for our finding no notice of it in Cicero, though it is mentioned by Strabo among the few cities still subsisting on the north coast of Sicily, as well as afterwards by Pliny, Ptolemy and the Itineraries.
Imachara, was an ancient city of Sicily repeatedly mentioned by Cicero among the municipal towns of the island. There is great discrepancy in regard to the form of the name, which is written in many manuscripts Macarensis or Macharensis; and the same uncertainty is found in those of Pliny, who also notices the town among those of the interior of Sicily. The precise location of Imachara is not known but has been and remains the subject of much scholarly debate.
Capo Passero or Cape Passaro is a celebrated promontory of Sicily, forming the extreme southeastern point of the whole island, and one of the three promontories which were supposed to have given to it the name of "Trinacria."
Rama or Rame was an ancient town in Gallia Narbonensis, which the Itineraries fix on the road between Ebrodunum and Brigantium. D'Anville says that there is a place called Rame on this road near the Durance, on the same side as Embrun and Briançon, and at a point where a torrent named Biesse joins the Durance. The editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World place Rama near La Roche-de-Rame.
Idomenae or Idomenai, also known as Idomene (Ἰδομένη), or Eidomenae or Eidomenai, or Idomenia, was a town of ancient Macedonia which the Tabular Itinerary places at 12 M. P. from Stena. Sitalces, on his route from Thrace to Macedonia, crossed Mount Cercine, leaving the Paeones on his right, and the Sinti and Maedi on his left, and descended upon the Axius at Idomenae. It is included by Ptolemy in Emathia, and was near Doberus, next to which it is named by Hierocles among the towns of Consular Macedonia under the Byzantine Empire. Idomenae is documented from the 5th century BCE.
Crociatonum or Cronciaconnum, is a location in the Tabula Peutingeriana. Ptolemy makes it a port of the Unelli or Veneli, a Gallic nation who occupied part of Armorica. The Table contains a route from Alauna to Caesarodunum, in which the next station to Alauna is Cronciaconnum, distant 10½ Roman miles from Alauna. Its position, therefore, depends on that of Alauna. Crociatonum lies between Alauna and Augustodorus, from which it is 31½ M. P. distant. D'Anville, who places Alauna at the Moutiers d'Alonne, fixes Crociatonum at Valognes, in the department of Manche. Accordingly, he considers that there is an error in Ptolemy, for the place is called a port in one manuscript at least. But if Alauna is at or near Valognes, as most modern geographers contend, Crociatonum must be looked for elsewhere. Walckenaer places it at the village of Turqueville, west of Audouville-la-Hubert, at the entrance of the Bay of Isigny. There may have been both a town and a port of the same name. Some geographers, including the editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World would fix Crociatonum at Carentan, west of Isigny-sur-Mer.
Padyandus or Podyandos was an ancient town in Cataonia, the southernmost part of Cappadocia, in what is today Turkey. The town was located about 40 km to the southeast of Faustinopolis, near the pass of Mount Taurus known by the name of the Cilician Gates. Extended by the emperor Valens (364-378), the town is mentioned in the itineraria, but its name assumes different forms; as Paduandus, Podandos, Mansio Opodanda, and Rhegepodandos. The place is described by Basilius as one of the most wretched holes on earth. It is said to have derived its name from a small stream in the neighborhood. Due to similarity of name, tradition assigns the location of Padyandus to that of Pozantı, a position that modern scholars only tentatively accept.
Faustinopolis, was an ancient city in the south of Cappadocia, about 20 km south of Tyana. It was named after the empress Faustina, the wife of Marcus Aurelius, who died there in a village, which her husband, by establishing a colony in it, raised to the rank of a town under the name of Faustinopolis. Hierocles assigns the place to Cappadocia Secunda, and it is mentioned also in the Antonine and Jerusalem Itineraries. The town was close to the defiles of the Cilician Gates, and was likely situated at modern-day Toraman, Niğde Province, Turkey. Following the Muslim conquests and the subsequent Arab raids, the site was abandoned for the nearby fortress of Loulon.
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Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.