Tightrope CCL is a veterinary orthopedic surgical method developed to provide a minimally invasive procedure for extracapsular stabilization of the canine cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle joint. The cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) stabilizes the dog knee much like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does in humans.
The stifle joint is a complex joint in the hind limbs of quadruped mammals such as the sheep, horse or dog. It is the equivalent of the human knee and is often the largest synovial joint in the animal's body. The stifle joint joins three bones: the femur, patella, and tibia. The joint consists of three smaller ones: the femoropatellar joint, medial femorotibial joint, and lateral femorotibial joint.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments in the human knee. The two ligaments are also called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint, based on its anatomical position, it is also referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament. The term cruciate translates to cross. This name is fitting because the ACL crosses the posterior cruciate ligament to form an “X”. It is composed of strong fibrous material and assists in controlling excessive motion. This is done by limiting mobility of the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL is the most injured ligament of the four located in the knee.
There are several modalities currently being used in the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency, which is a common and costly problem in dogs and sometimes cats. The Tightrope CCL technique utilizes a very strong suture material called FiberTape and isometric placement of small bone tunnels to provide bone-to-bone fixation while not causing the trauma of cutting through the bone of the tibia like a TPLO - tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or TTA - Tibial tuberosity advancement procedure. The objective of TightRope CCL is to counteract cranial tibial thrust, drawer, and internal rotation while providing optimal joint range of motion.
The tibia, also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates, and it connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane or centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of the leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body next to the femur. The leg bones are the strongest long bones as they support the rest of the body.
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) is an orthopedic procedure to repair deficient cranial cruciate ligaments in dogs. It has also been used in cats. This procedure was developed by Dr. Slobodan Tepic and Professor Pierre Montavon at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zurich, in Zurich, Switzerland beginning in the late 1990s.
TPLO, or tibial-plateau-leveling osteotomy, is a surgery performed on dogs to stabilize the stifle joint after ruptures of the cranial cruciate ligament.
The triple tibial osteotomy (TTO) is a surgical procedure used to treat dogs that have completely or partially ruptured the cranial cruciate ligament in one or both of their stifles. The cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) is a ligament connecting the femur with the tibia, which functions to stabilise the canine stifle joint from the forces put on it during exercise and weight bearing.
Simitri Stable in Stride is a three part modular surgical implant used during surgery performed on dogs to stabilize the stifle joint (knee) after rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) which is analogous to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in humans.
In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia, and one between the femur and patella. It is the largest joint in the human body. The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation. The knee is vulnerable to injury and to the development of osteoarthritis.
An osteotomy is a surgical operation whereby a bone is cut to shorten or lengthen it or to change its alignment. It is sometimes performed to correct a hallux valgus, or to straighten a bone that has healed crookedly following a fracture. It is also used to correct a coxa vara, genu valgum, and genu varum. The operation is done under a general anaesthetic.
The posterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the medial condyle of the femur. This configuration allows the PCL to resist forces pushing the tibia posteriorly relative to the femur.
Osgood–Schlatter disease (OSD) is inflammation of the patellar ligament at the tibial tuberosity. It is characterized by a painful bump just below the knee that is worse with activity and better with rest. Episodes of pain typically last a few weeks to months. One or both knees may be affected and flares may recur.
Dog anatomy comprises the anatomical studies of the visible parts of the body of a canine. Details of structures vary tremendously from breed to breed, more than in any other animal species, wild or domesticated, as dogs are highly variable in height and weight. The smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier that stood only 6.3 cm (2.5 in) at the shoulder, 9.5 cm (3.7 in) in length along the head and body, and weighed only 113 grams (4.0 oz). The largest known adult dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg (343 lb) and was 250 cm (98 in) from the snout to the tail. The tallest known adult dog is a Great Dane that stands 106.7 cm (42.0 in) at the shoulder.
Cruciate ligaments are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X. They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee joint and the atlanto-axial joint. In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob's ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while allowing a very large range of motion.
Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics, soft tissue surgery, and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement, fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures are performed by veterinary surgeons. Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery [neuters, minor mass excisions, etc.], some also perform additional procedures.
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a surgical procedure used to relieve arthritis in one of the knee compartments in which the damaged parts of the knee are replaced. UKA surgery may reduce post-operative pain and have a shorter recovery period than a total knee replacement procedure, particularly in people over 75 years of age. Moreover, UKAs may require a smaller incision, less tissue damage, and faster recovery times.
A bumper fracture is a fracture of the lateral tibial plateau caused by the bumper of a car coming into contact with the outer side of the knee when a person is standing. Specifically, it is caused by a forced valgus applied to the knee. This causes the lateral part of the distal femur and the lateral tibial plateau to come into contact, compressing the tibial plateau and causing the tibia to fracture. The name of the injury is because it was described as being caused by the impact of a car bumper on the lateral side of the knee while the foot is planted on the ground, although this mechanism is only seen in about 25% of tibial plateau fractures.
Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee are injuries to a complex area formed by the interaction of multiple structures. Injuries to the posterolateral corner can be debilitating to the person and require recognition and treatment to avoid long term consequences. Injuries to the PLC often occur in combination with other ligamentous injuries to the knee; most commonly the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). As with any injury, an understanding of the anatomy and functional interactions of the posterolateral corner is important to diagnosing and treating the injury.
A tibial plateau fracture is a break of the upper part of the tibia (shinbone) that involves the knee joint. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and a decreased ability to move the knee. People are generally unable to walk. Complication may include injury to the artery or nerve, arthritis, and compartment syndrome.
Medial knee injuries are those to the medial side – the inside of the knee – are the most common. The medial ligament complex of the knee is composed of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL), deep medial collateral ligament (dMCL), and the posterior oblique ligament (POL). These ligaments have also been called the medial collateral ligament (MCL), tibial collateral ligament, mid-third capsular ligament, and oblique fibers of the sMCL, respectively. This complex is the major stabilizer of the medial knee. Injuries to the medial side of the knee are most commonly isolated to these ligaments. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and function of the medial knee structures, along with a detailed history and physical exam, are imperative to diagnosing and treating these injuries.
The function of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is to prevent the femur from sliding off the anterior edge of the tibia and to prevent the tibia from displacing posterior to the femur. Common causes of PCL injuries are direct blows to the flexed knee, such as the knee hitting the dashboard in a car accident or falling hard on the knee, both instances displacing the tibia posterior to the femur.
James L. Cook, Jill K. Luther, Jodi Beetem, Cristi R. Cook; University of Missouri, Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory: Tightrope CCL for treatment of cranial cruciate deficiency in dogs: Technique and results of a prospective comparison to TPLO using a validated outcome measures. Whitepaper 2007, arthrexvetsystems.com