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Time gain compensation (TGC) is a setting applied in diagnostic ultrasound imaging to account for tissue attenuation.By increasing the received signal intensity with depth, the artifacts in the uniformity of a B-mode image intensity are reduced.
This means that a TGC module will increase the amount of gain given to an input signal, as its sampling time increases monotonically. This counteracts the excessive sound-dampening properties of human tissue.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT and PET scans. MRI is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications, such as NMR spectroscopy.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the surface topography and composition of the sample. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the position of the beam is combined with the intensity of the detected signal to produce an image. In the most common SEM mode, secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam are detected using a secondary electron detector. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected, and thus the signal intensity, depends, among other things, on specimen topography. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is not different from "normal" (audible) sound in its physical properties, except that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz in healthy young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium. For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates.
A struma ovarii is a rare form of monodermal teratoma that contains mostly thyroid tissue, which may cause hyperthyroidism.
Image noise is random variation of brightness or color information in images, and is usually an aspect of electronic noise. It can be produced by the image sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera. Image noise can also originate in film grain and in the unavoidable shot noise of an ideal photon detector. Image noise is an undesirable by-product of image capture that obscures the desired information.
In optics, photobleaching is the photochemical alteration of a dye or a fluorophore molecule such that it permanently is unable to fluoresce. This is caused by cleaving of covalent bonds or non-specific reactions between the fluorophore and surrounding molecules. Such irreversible modifications in covalent bonds are caused by transition from a singlet state to the triplet state of the fluorophores. The number of excitation cycles to achieve full bleaching varies. In microscopy, photobleaching may complicate the observation of fluorescent molecules, since they will eventually be destroyed by the light exposure necessary to stimulate them into fluorescing. This is especially problematic in time-lapse microscopy.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography is used to generate images of arteries in order to evaluate them for stenosis, occlusions, aneurysms or other abnormalities. MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the legs.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic technique that uses non-ionizing ultrasonic waves to heat tissue. HIFU can be used to increase the flow of blood or lymph, or to destroy tissue, such as tumors, through a number of mechanisms. The technology can be used to treat a range of disorders and as of 2015 is at various stages of development and commercialization.
Optical tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research. Optical tomography in industry is used as a sensor of thickness and internal structure of semiconductors.
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales. Different methods are used to examine the dynamics of charge carriers, atoms, and molecules. Many different procedures have been developed spanning different time scales and photon energy ranges; some common methods are listed below.
Ultrasound energy, simply known as ultrasound, is a type of mechanical energy called sound characterized by vibrating or moving particles within a medium. Ultrasound is distinguished by vibrations with a frequency greater than 20,000 Hz, compared to audible sounds that humans typically hear with frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz. Ultrasound energy requires matter or a medium with particles to vibrate to conduct or propagate its energy. The energy generally travels through most mediums in the form of a wave in which particles are deformed or displaced by the energy then reestablished after the energy passes. Types of waves include shear, surface, and longitudinal waves with the latter being one of the most common used in biological applications. The characteristics of the traveling ultrasound energy greatly depend on the medium that it is traveling through. While ultrasound waves propagate through a medium, the amplitude of the wave is continually reduced or weakened with the distance it travels. This is known as attenuation and is due to the scattering or deflecting of energy signals as the wave propagates and the conversion of some of the energy to heat energy within the medium. A medium that changes the mechanical energy from the vibrations of the ultrasound energy into thermal or heat energy is called viscoelastic. The properties of ultrasound waves traveling through the medium of biological tissues has been extensively studied in recent years and implemented into many important medical tools.
Signal enhancement by extravascular water protons, or SEEP, is a contrast mechanism for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is an alternative to the more commonly employed BOLD contrast. This mechanism for image contrast changes corresponding to changes in neuronal activity was first proposed by Dr. Patrick Stroman in 2001. SEEP contrast is based on changes in tissue water content which arise from the increased production of extracellular fluid and swelling of neurons and glial cells at sites of neuronal activity. Because the dominant sources of MRI signal in biological tissues are water and lipids, an increase in tissue water content is reflected by a local increase in MR signal intensity. A correspondence between BOLD and SEEP signal changes, and sites of activity, has been observed in the brain and appears to arise from the common dependence on changes in local blood flow to cause a change in blood oxygenation or to produce extracellular fluid. The advantage of SEEP contrast is that it can be detected with MR imaging methods which are relatively insensitive to magnetic susceptibility differences between air, tissues, blood, and bone. Such susceptibility differences can give rise to spatial image distortions and areas of low signal, and magnetic susceptibility changes in blood give rise to the BOLD contrast for fMRI. The primary application of SEEP to date has been fMRI of the spinal cord because the bone/tissue interfaces around the spinal cord cause poor image quality with conventional fMRI methods. The disadvantages of SEEP compared to BOLD contrast are that it reveals more localized areas of activity, and in the brain the signal intensity changes are typically lower, and it can therefore be more difficult to detect (7-10). It is also controversial because it is not universally agreed to exist as a contrast mechanism for fMRI. However, more recent studies have demonstrated changes in MRI signal corresponding with changes in neuronal activity in rat cortical tissue slices, in the absence of blood flow or changes in oxygenation, and neuronal activity and cellular swelling were corroborated by light-transmittance microscopy. This demonstrated SEEP contrast in the absence of confounding factors which can occur in-vivo, such as physiological motion and the possibility of concurrent BOLD contrast.
Gadoteric acid (gadoterate meglumine, trade names Artirem, Dotarem and Clariscan) is a macrocycle-structured gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent (GBCA). It consists of the organic acid DOTA as a chelating agent, and gadolinium (Gd3+), and is used in form of the meglumine salt (Gadoterate meglumine). The paramagnetic property of gadoteric acid reduces the T1 relaxation time (and to some extent the T2 and T2* relaxation times) in MRI, which is the source of its clinical utility. Because it has magnetic properties, gadoteric acid develops a magnetic moment when put under a magnetic field, which increases the signal intensity (brightness) of tissues during MRI imaging.
Perfusion MRI or perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) is perfusion scanning by the use of a particular MRI sequence. The acquired data are then post-processed to obtain perfusion maps with different parameters, such as BV, BF, MTT and TTP.
Synthetic MRI is a simulation method in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), for generating contrast weighted images based on measurement of tissue properties. The synthetic (simulated) images are generated after an MR study, from parametric maps of tissue properties. It is thereby possible to generate several contrast weightings from the same acquisition. This is different from conventional MRI, where the signal acquired from the tissue is used to generate an image directly, often generating only one contrast weighting per acquisition. The synthetic images are similar in appearance to those normally acquired with an MRI scanner.
Stimulated Raman spectroscopy, also referred to as stimulated raman scattering (SRS) is a form of spectroscopy employed in physics, chemistry, biology, and other fields. The basic mechanism resembles that of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy: a pump photon, of the angular frequency , which is absorbed by a molecule has some small probability of inducing some vibrational transition, as opposed to inducing a simple Rayleigh transition. This makes the molecule emit a photon at a shifted frequency. However, SRS, as opposed to spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, is a third-order non-linear phenomenon involving a second photon—the Stokes photon of angular frequency —which stimulates a specific transition. When the difference in frequency between both photons resembles that of a specific vibrational transition the occurrence of this transition is resonantly enhanced. In SRS, the signal is equivalent to changes in the intensity of the pump and Stokes beams. Employing a pump laser beam of a constant frequency and a Stokes laser beam of a scanned frequency allows for the unraveling of the spectral fingerprint of the molecule. This spectral fingerprint differs from those obtained by other spectroscopy methods such as Rayleigh scattering as the Raman transitions confer to different exclusion rules than those that apply for Rayleigh transitions.
An MRI sequence in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particular setting of pulse sequences and pulsed field gradients, resulting in a particular image appearance.
An MRI artifact is a visual artifact in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a feature appearing in an image that is not present in the original object. Many different artifacts can occur during MRI, some affecting the diagnostic quality, while others may be confused with pathology. Artifacts can be classified as patient-related, signal processing-dependent and hardware (machine)-related.
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