Timorex Gold is a natural botanical broad spectrum fungicide with prophylactic and curative activity, based on a plant extract of Melaleuca alternifolia. Timorex Gold is effective against a wide range of plant-pathogenic fungi, including Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycota, on numerous crops, including vegetables, herbs, grapevines, fruit trees, and banana. Timorex Gold has demonstrated high efficacy against Black Sigatoka (Black leaf streak disease in banana). Plants damaged by Black Sigatoka have a significant reduction in the photosynthesizing area of the leaf, and fruit yield losses can reach 50% through premature maturation.
Black Sigatoka is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet), and is considered the most damaging and costly disease of commercial banana and plantain. It originated in the Pacific region, was reported in Fiji in 1963, and since then has reached other banana producing countries. Control of this disease may require as many as 70 treatments per year using synthetic fungicides.
Timorex Gold's special formulation contains multiple components, mostly terpenes and their alcohols, which have been proven antiseptic, fungicide and bactericide properties. The unique and powerful potential of this plant extract is highly effective for control in agricultural crops while significantly reducing the chemical risk to operators and the environment.
In 2003, scientists at Biomor, s member of the Stockton Group Research and Development Innovation Center, commenced research on the use of Melaleuca alternifolia in agriculture for the management and control of bacterial and fungal diseases. Studies dealing with non-plant pathogens confirmed that the fungicidal and anti-microbial activity of M. alternifolia resulted from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier in membrane structures. In yeast cells and isolated mitochondria, α-pinene and β-pinene, plant extract of "M. alternifolia" destroy cellular integrity, inhibit respiration and ion transport processes and increase membrane permeability.
The active substance of Timorex Gold was approved by the European Union to be included in the positive list of the EU, in Annex 1 of Directive 91/414/EEC for the registration of pesticides.
The active ingredient of Timorex Gold is a natural product that is classified as a low-risk substance for which Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) are not required in Europe. Stockton is in the process of obtaining similar exemptions in other areas of the world such as North America and Asia.
Timorex Gold is recognized to be a product that is used in both conventional and organic agriculture. Timorex Gold meets the requirements of European Union, NOP and JAS and is certified by the following entities:
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores. A fungistatic inhibits their growth. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals. Chemicals used to control oomycetes, which are not fungi, are also referred to as fungicides, as oomycetes use the same mechanisms as fungi to infect plants. Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or systemic. Contact fungicides are not taken up into the plant tissue and protect only the plant where the spray is deposited. Translaminar fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface. Systemic fungicides are taken up and redistributed through the xylem vessels. Few fungicides move to all parts of a plant. Some are locally systemic, and some move upwardly.
Black sigatoka is a leaf-spot disease of banana plants caused by the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet), also known as black leaf streak. It was discovered in 1963 and named for its similarities with yellow Sigatoka, which is caused by Mycosphaerella musicola (Mulder), which was itself named after the Sigatoka Valley in Fiji. In the same valley an outbreak of this disease reached epidemic proportions from 1912 to 1923.
Fusarium wilt is a common vascular wilt fungal disease, exhibiting symptoms similar to Verticillium wilt. This disease has been investigated extensively since the early years of this century. The pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt is Fusarium oxysporum. The species is further divided into formae speciales based on host plant.
Apple scab is a common disease of plants in the rose family (Rosaceae) that is caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis. While this disease affects several plant genera, including Sorbus, Cotoneaster, and Pyrus, it is most commonly associated with the infection of Malus trees, including species of flowering crabapple, as well as cultivated apple. The first symptoms of this disease are found in the foliage, blossoms, and developing fruits of affected trees, which develop dark, irregularly-shaped lesions upon infection. Although apple scab rarely kills its host, infection typically leads to fruit deformation and premature leaf and fruit drop, which enhance the susceptibility of the host plant to abiotic stress and secondary infection. The reduction of fruit quality and yield may result in crop losses of up to 70%, posing a significant threat to the profitability of apple producers. To reduce scab-related yield losses, growers often combine preventive practices, including sanitation and resistance breeding, with reactive measures, such as targeted fungicide or biocontrol treatments, to prevent the incidence and spread of apple scab in their crops.
Uncinula necator is a fungus that causes powdery mildew of grape. It is a common pathogen of Vitis species, including the wine grape, Vitis vinifera. The fungus is believed to have originated in North America. European varieties of Vitis vinifera are more or less susceptible to this fungus. Uncinula necator infects all green tissue on the grapevine, including leaves and young berries. It can cause crop loss and poor wine quality if untreated. The sexual stage of this pathogen requires free moisture to release ascospores from its cleistothecia in the spring. However, free moisture is not needed for secondary spread via conidia; high atmospheric humidity is sufficient. Its anamorph is called Oidium tuckeri.
Grape black rot is a fungal disease caused by an ascomycetous fungus, Guignardia bidwellii, that attacks grape vines during hot and humid weather. “Grape black rot originated in eastern North America, but now occurs in portions of Europe, South America, and Asia. It can cause complete crop loss in warm, humid climates, but is virtually unknown in regions with arid summers.” The name comes from the black fringe that borders growing brown patches on the leaves. The disease also attacks other parts of the plant, “all green parts of the vine: the shoots, leaf and fruit stems, tendrils, and fruit. The most damaging effect is to the fruit”.
Nicaragua produces coffee, cotton, bananas, sugar and beef cattle.
Taphrina deformans is a fungus and plant pathogen, and a causal agent[s] of peach leaf curl. Peach trees infected with T. deformans will experience leaf puckering and distortion, acquiring a characteristic downward and inward curl. Leaves will also undergo chlorosis, turning a pale green or yellow, and later show a red or purple tint. Fruit can either drop prematurely or show surface distortions. Severe infection can also produce lesions on the flowers. The host tree will experience defoliation if the leaves are badly diseased. If a seedling is severely infected, it may die. Almond trees display similar symptoms.
Mycosphaerella musicola is a fungal plant pathogen, which is the causal agent of Yellow Sigatoka leaf spot disease on banana plants.
Cercospora melongenae is a fungal plant pathogen that causes leaf spot on eggplant. It is a deuteromycete fungus that is primarily confined to eggplant species. Some other host species are Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum incanum. This plant pathogen only attacks leaves of eggplants and not the fruit. It is fairly common among the fungi that infect community gardens and home gardens of eggplant. Generally speaking, Cercospora melongenae attacks all local varieties of eggplants, but is most severe on the Philippine eggplant and less parasitic on a Siamese variety.
Fique is a natural fibre that grows in the leaves of plants in the genus Furcraea. Common names include fique, cabuya, pita, penca, penco, maguey, cabui, chuchao and coquiza.
Banana production in Ivory Coast, as in most of Africa, is primarily for local consumption and consists of crops of dessert bananas, cooking bananas grown on open plantations, and as intermittent crops from sea level to elevations of 2000 metres above sea level. West Africa is second to Central Africa in banana production in Africa and its use as a staple crop for local residents. Most of the banana crop in Central Africa is for local consumption, bananas being a major foodstuff in this area.
This article summarizes different crops, what common fungal problems they have, and how fungicide should be used in order to mitigate damage and crop loss. This page also covers how specific fungal infections affect crops present in the United States.
Epoxiconazole is a fungicide active ingredient from the class of azoles developed to protect crops. In particular, the substance inhibits the metabolism of fungi cells infesting useful plants, and thereby prevents the growth of the mycelia. Epoxiconazole also limits the production of conidia (mitospores). Epoxiconazole was introduced to the market by BASF SE in 1993 and can be found in many products and product mixtures targeting a large number of pathogens in various crops. Crops are, for example, cereals, soybeans, banana, rice, coffee, turnips, and red as well as sugar beets.
Bupirimate is an active ingredient of plant protection products, which has an effect as a fungicide. It belongs to the chemical family of pyrimidine sulfamates. Bupirimate has translaminar mobility and systemic translocation in the xylem. It acts mainly by inhibiting sporulation and is used for control of powdery mildew of apples, pears, stone fruit, cucurbits, roses and other ornamentals, strawberries, gooseberries, currants, raspberries, hops, beets and other crops. Bupirimate is not an insecticide. It is of low mammalian toxicity and is non-toxic to bees. However, it is used in many products which also contain insecticides.
Flhorban 920 (FB920) is a synthetic banana hybrid developed as a cultivar of banana naturally resistant to Black and Yellow Sigatoka fungi in an attempt to replace the highly susceptible Cavendish banana. Additionally, FB920 has been shown to improve root resistance to Burrowing nematodes.
Banana freckle is a disease caused by the fungus Guignardia musae (teleomorph) or Phyllosticta musarum (anamorph). Generally, the causal agent of disease is referred to as Guignardia-Phyllosticta sp. There are several different strains of the fungus that exist to infect different banana varieties around the globe. Symptoms include yellowing of the tissue and formation of small dark brown spots on the leaves and fruit. Within the spots, conidia or pycnidia can be found. Banana freckle is easily propagated and spread from plant to plant by rain splash and movement of infected tissue or fruit. Management of the disease consists of cutting out infected leaves, using the paper bag method, fungicide application, and proper sanitation techniques. This devastating disease is extremely relevant for the major banana exporting countries of the world. In the absence of chemical control, there is about a 78% yield loss. Banana freckle disease needs to be carefully monitored in order to prevent further spread of the disease.
Thidiazuron (TDZ) is a plant growth regulator.
(Benzothiazol-2-ylthio)methyl thiocyanate (TCMTB) is a chemical compound classified as a benzothiazole.
Robert Harry Stover was a Canadian-Honduran phytopathologist specializing in Musa crops and their fungal diseases.