Last updated

Era Vijayanagara period
Known for
  • Poetry
  • singing
  • philanthropy
  • Hindu philosophy
  • linguistics
Notable workVaradambika Parinaya
SpouseEmperor Achyuta Deva Raya
Relatives Sevappa Nayaka (brother-in-law)
Family Pandya

Tirumalamba, also known as Oduva Tirumalamba was an Indian polymath, polyglot and philanthropist of the Vijayanagara period who was active as a poetess, a musician, a grammarian and a Hindu scholar. [1] She is cheifly remembered for composing Varadambika Parinaya, a Kavya on the wedding of the Emperor Achyuta Deva Raya and Salaga Princess Varadambika, in Sanskrit. [2] It was the only Sanskrit romance to be written by a woman. She also knew many scripts and coined the largest word of her time. [1]

She also became a queen of the Emperor Achyuta as noted in the epilogue of Varadambika Parinaya where she is described as the "confidante and the be-all and the end-all of the deepest love of Emperor Achyutaraya" and substantiated by other primary sources. [3] Scholar Lakshman Sarup theorizes that Tirumalamba is the unnamed daughter of a Pandya vassal who wed emperor Achyuta mentioned in a Kanchi Inscription. [4]


  1. 1 2 Upadhyay, Jay. "The Feminisms of Dharmic India". The Illinois Undergraduate Journal of History. 1 (1): 5. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  2. "Telugu Women Writers of the Last Millennium" . Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  3. Sastri, Suryakanta (1970). Varadambika Parinaya Campu. Chaukhamba Amarabharati Prakashan. p. 1.
  4. Sarup, Lakshman (1928). Proceedings And Transactions Of The Fifth Indian Oriental Conference Vol 1. University of Panjab, Lahore.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Krishnadevaraya</span> Emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from 1509 to 1529

Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire reigning from 1509 to 1529. He was the third monarch of the Tuluva dynasty, and is considered to be one of the greatest rulers in Indian history. He ruled the largest empire in India after the fall of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishnadevaraya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja, Karnatakaratna Simhasanadeeshwara, Yavana Rajya Pratistapanacharya, Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana, Gaubrahmana Pratipalaka and Mooru Rayara Ganda. He became the dominant ruler of the peninsula by defeating the sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, and was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan</span> Malayalam devotional poet

Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan was a Malayalam devotional poet, translator and linguist. He was one of the prāchīna kavithrayam of Malayalam literature, the other two being Kunchan Nambiar and Cherusseri. He has been called the "Father of Modern Malayalam", the "Father of Modern Malayalam Literature", and the "Primal Poet in Malayalam". He was one of the pioneers of a major shift in Kerala's literary culture. His work is published and read far more than that of any of his contemporaries or predecessors in Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lakshman Joo</span> Hindu saint (1907–1991)

Swami Lakshman Joo, born Lakshman Raina and also called Lal Sahib by his followers, was a mystic and scholar of Kashmir Shaivism.

<i>Ramcharitmanas</i> Awadhi poem about Rama by Tulsidas

Ramcharitmanas, is an epic poem in the Awadhi language, based on the Ramayana, and composed by the 16th-century Indian bhakti poet Tulsidas. This work is also called, in popular parlance, Tulsi Ramayana, Tulsikrit Ramayana, Tulsidas Ramayana or simply Manas. The word Ramcharitmanas literally means "Lake of the deeds of Rama". It is considered one of the greatest works of Hindu literature. The work has variously been acclaimed as "the living sum of Indian culture", "the tallest tree in the magic garden of medieval Indian poetry", "the greatest book of all devotional literature" and "the best and most trustworthy guide to the popular living faith of the Indian people".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Achyuta Deva Raya</span> Emperor of Vijayanagara from 1529 to 1542

Achyuta Deva Raya was an Emperor of Vijayanagara who succeeded his older brother, the Emperor Krishna Deva Raya after the latter's death in 1529 CE.

Bāṇabhaṭṭa was a 7th-century Sanskrit prose writer and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of the emperor Harsha, who reigned c. 606–647 CE in north India, first from Sthanvishvara (Thanesar), and later Kannauj. Bāna's principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita, and one of the world's earliest novels, Kadambari. Bāṇa died before finishing the novel and it was completed by his son Bhūṣaṇabhaṭṭa. Both these works are noted texts of Sanskrit literature. The other works attributed to him are the Caṇḍikāśataka and a drama, the Pārvatīpariṇaya. Banabhatta gets an applause as "banochhistam jagatsarvam" meaning Bana has described everything in this world and nothing is left.

Jyeṣṭhadeva was an astronomer-mathematician of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. He is best known as the author of Yuktibhāṣā, a commentary in Malayalam of Tantrasamgraha by Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544). In Yuktibhāṣā, Jyeṣṭhadeva had given complete proofs and rationale of the statements in Tantrasamgraha. This was unusual for traditional Indian mathematicians of the time. The Yuktibhāṣā is now believed to contain the essential elements of calculus like Taylor and infinity series. Jyeṣṭhadeva also authored Drk-karana, a treatise on astronomical observations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nirukta</span> Study about Hindu Vedas

Nirukta is one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism. Nirukta covers etymology, and is the study concerned with correct interpretation of Sanskrit words in the Vedas.

Bhāsa is one of the earliest and most celebrated Indian playwrights in Sanskrit, predating Kālidasa. His name was already well-known by the 1st century BCE and he belongs to the late-Mauryan period at the earliest, but the thirteen plays attached to his name are commonly dated closer to the first or second century CE.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vijayanagara literature</span>

Vijayanagara literature was produced in the Vijayanagara Empire during a golden age of literature in South India in general. The rulers patronised Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil scholars who wrote in the Jain, Virashaiva and Vaishnava traditions. The period produced hundreds of works on all aspects of Indian culture, religion, biographies, prabhandas (stories), music, grammar, poetics and medicine. An attempt is made in this section to list the various poets and saints and their most famous works.

Nighaṇṭu is a Sanskrit term for a traditional collection of words, grouped into thematic categories, often with brief annotations. Such collections share characteristics with glossaries and thesauri, but are not true lexicons, such as the kośa of Sanskrit literature. Particular collections are also called nighaṇṭava.

Viśvanātha Kavirāja, most widely known for his masterpiece in aesthetics, Sāhityadarpaṇa, was a prolific poet, scholar, and rhetorician who ascended literary heights during the reigns of two successive Eastern Ganga rulers of Kalinga (India) – King Narasimha Deva IV and King Nishanka Bhanudeva IV. In absence of availability of exact dates of his birth and date, the periods of their rules is assumed to be the time of Viswanatha.

Svapnavasavadattam is a Sanskrit play in six acts written by the ancient Indian poet Bhāsa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Krishnaraja Wadiyar III</span> Maharaja of Mysore from 1799–1868

Krishnaraja Wadiyar III was the twenty-second maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore. Also known as Mummadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar, the maharaja belonged to the Wadiyar dynasty and ruled the kingdom for nearly seventy years, from 30 June 1799 to 27 March 1868. He is known for his contribution and patronage to different arts and music during his reign. He was succeeded by his adopted son, Chamarajendra Wadiyar X.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upendra Bhanja</span> Odia poet

Kabi SamrataUpendra Bhanja was a 17th-century Odia poet-composer of classical Odissi music. He is most known for his Odissi songs and kabyas written in the Odia language, primarily Baidehisa Bilasa, Labanyabati & Koti Brahmanda Sundari.

<i>Urubhanga</i> Sanskrit play attributed to Bhāsa

Urubhanga or Urubhangam,, is a Sanskrit play written by Bhasa in the 2nd or 3rd century CE. Based on the well-known epic, the Mahābhārata, by Vyasa, Urubhanga focuses on the story of the character Duryodhana during and after his fight with Bhima. Although Urubhanga contains the same core storyline as that in the Mahābhārata, Bhasa's altering of certain aspects results in a different presentation of the story. The most extreme of these alterations is Bhasa's portrayal of Duryodhana, who, in the Mahābhārata, is viewed as a villain, but in Urubhanga is given more human qualities. Bhasa's presentation of Duryodhana's side of the tale adds certain tragic elements to the play.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madhura Vijayam</span>

Madhurā Vijayam, meaning "The Victory of Madurai", is a 14th-century C.E Sanskrit poem written by the poet Gangadevi. It is also named Vira Kamparaya Charitham by the poet. It chronicles the life of Kumara Kampana, a prince of the Vijayanagara Empire and the second son of Bukka Raya I. The poem describes in detail, the invasion and conquest of the Madurai Sultanate by the Vijayanagara empire.

Sevappa Nayak was a Nayaka (governer) of Thanjavur under the Vijayanagara Empire from 1532 to 1560.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tirumala Devi</span> Princess of Srirangapattana

Tirumala Devi was the senior wife and chief queen of Emperor Krishnadevaraya, who is considered to be the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. She was also the most honoured wife of Krishnadevaraya, and the mother of his heir-apparent, Prince Tirumala, who died in his childhood.