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Tjauti was an ancient Egyptian official who lived at the end of the Eighth Dynasty, around 2150 BC. He is known from a number of sources providing evidence that he was an important figure in the Coptic Nome in Upper Egypt. However, the sources are often broken and the figure of Tjauti remains therefore enigmatic. The most important objects naming Tjauti are the fragments of a false door found near Khozam (compare: Iushenshen) [1] where he is called overseer of Upper Egypt , which was one of the most important titles in the Old Kingdom. He is also called the one who fills the heart of the king showing some close connection to the royal court. A person called Tjauti-iqer also appears in several inscriptions in the Wadi Hammamat, reporting the transport of stones: Tjauti-iqer seems to be a variant of the name. The inscriptions also mentions the god's father Idy, who was the son of Shemay. Shemay lived at the end of the Eighth Dynasty providing also a date for Tjauti to about the same period.

Gebel Tjaut inscription

A further inscription was found at the rock today called Gebel Tjauti (the rock is named after Tjauti) which is today much destroyed, but gave rise for some speculation as some fights seems to be mentioned. [2] The inscription seems to report the opening of a road. Close to this inscription was found another one naming a king Intef and the assault of soldiers. The publication of the inscription sees a connection between these two inscriptions and identifies Intef, with Intef I. [3]

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Shemay was an ancient Egyptian official and later vizier toward the end of the 8th Dynasty during the First Intermediate Period, mainly known for being the beneficiary of most of the Coptos Decrees. His career has been interpreted as a glaring sign of the extreme weakness of the central power, forced to bestow great privileges to maintain the loyalty of powerful local governors. Shemay is buried in a mudbrick mastaba just south of Coptos.

Iushenshen was an ancient Egyptian town in the Coptic nome in Upper Egypt. It is a few times mentioned in Ancient Egyptian sources. According to the Ramesside Onomastica the place was located south of Coptos. 25 km (16 mi) south of Coptos there is the modern town called Khozam where ancient monuments have been found, and it seems possible that Khozam was ancient Iushenshen. Near Khozam were excavated several cemeteries with some of them dating back to the Badarian Period. Near Khozam the false door of the local governor User and the false door of the overseer of Upper Egypt Tjauti were also found, they date to the very end of the Old Kingdom. These high officials were evidently buried here and it seems that the capital of the Coptite nome moved at the end of the Old Kingdom to this place. Iushenshen was destroyed in the First Intermediate Period. A stela of a certain Khenmes reports that he was sent to the town and rebuilt it.

Idy (vizier)

Idy was an important Ancient Egyptian official in the Eighth Dynasty known from several sources. He lived at the beginning of the First Intermediate Period and was the son of Shemay, who is also known from several monuments and decrees from Koptos. His mother was the king's daughter Nebet. Idy appears on many royal decrees found at Koptos. There he bears the important title of a vizier, but was also overseer of Upper Egypt and overseer of priest and count. The decrees are dated under king Neferkauhor and Neferirkare. One decree is addressed to Shemay and dates under Neferkauhor. It reports the appointment of Idy to the overseer of Upper Egypt. A second one mentions affairs in the temple of Min at Koptos. In a third decree Idy bears the titles of a vizier. In the decree, the king protects the statues and the funerary cult of Idy. The decree is dated under king Neferirkare, who was the successor of Neferkauhor. It seems that Idy took over many positions that his father hold before.

User was an ancient Egyptian nomarch (governor) of the Eight Dynasty. User is mainly known from a false door found at Khozam in 1884. The monument is about one meter high and is made of graywacke. It is today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Here User bears a long string of important titles, such as Father of the god, beloved of the god, Overseer of Upper Egypt, overseer of the desert lands and overlord of the Coptite nome. The latter title is the main title for nomarchs in the late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. Furthermore he was overseer of priests and overseer of the Eastern and Western Deserts. The most unusual title for a nomarch is king's eldest son of his body.

Gebel Tjauti is a rock formation in Egypt. The rock is named after Tjauti, an ancient Egyptian official who lived at the end of the Eighth Dynasty, around 2150 BC.


  1. Maha Farid Mostafa: The Mastaba of SmAj at Naga' Kom el-Koffar, Qift. Vol. I: Autobiographies and related scenes and texts. Ministry of Antiquities and Heritage, Cairo 2014, ISBN   978-977642004-5, p. 201, pl. XXXII
  2. Maha Farid Mostafa: The Mastaba of SmAj at Naga' Kom el-Koffar, Qift. Band I: Autobiographies and related scenes and texts. Ministry of Antiquities and Heritage, Cairo 2014, ISBN   978-977642004-5, 200-201
  3. John C. Darnell: Theban Desert Road Survey in the Egyptian Western Desert, Vol. 1, Gebel Tjauti Rock Inscriptions 1-45 and Wadi el-Hol Rock Inscriptions 1-45, Chicago 2002, ISBN   1-885923-17-1, p. 30-46