Tobacco use in Afghanistan

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Two types of tobacco are used in Afghanistan. Cigarette smoking and naswar or moist snuff which is used through mouth and nose. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) [1] held in schools of five provinces of Afghanistan showed high exposure to second hand smoke.

Another unpublished study by Welayatee et al. in general population of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, showed high prevalence of cigarette smoking among males and females aged 18 years and older. Naswar was another common form of tobacco used by adult males.

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Cigarette Small roll of cut tobacco designed to be smoked

A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing burnable material, typically tobacco, that is rolled into thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder; the resulting smoke is orally inhaled via the opposite end. Cigarette smoking is the most common method of tobacco consumption. Manufacturers have described the cigarette as "a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form." The term cigarette, as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette, but the word is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis (Jazz) cigarette or an herbal cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its usually smaller size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is typically white. A cigarette may be called a fag in British slang. Many other terms are used for cigarettes, including cigs, ciggies, smokes, darts, stogs, boges, and tabs.

Tobacco smoking Practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the resulting smoke

Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the smoke that is produced. The smoke may be inhaled, as is done with cigarettes, or simply released from the mouth, as is generally done with pipes and cigars. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.

Chewing tobacco Type of smokeless tobacco product

Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product that is placed between the cheek and lower gum to draw out its flavor. Some users chew it, others do not. It consists of coarsely chopped aged tobacco that is flavored and often sweetened; it is not ground fine like dipping tobacco. Unwanted juices are then spat.

Smokeless tobacco Tobacco product used by means other than smoking.

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Prevalence of tobacco use

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Menthol cigarette Cigarette flavored with the compound menthol

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Smoking Practice of inhaling a burnt substance for psychoactive effects

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Tobacco consumption by country Wikipedia list article

This is a list of countries by tobacco consumption and cigarette consumption per capita.

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Youth smoking Overview article

Smokingamong youth and adolescents is an issue that affects countries worldwide. While the extent to which smoking is viewed as a negative health behavior may vary across different nations, it remains an issue regardless of how it is perceived by different societies. The United States has taken numerous measures, ranging from changes in national policy surrounding youth cigarette access to changes in media campaigns, in attempts to eliminate the use of tobacco products among teenagers. Approximately 90% of smokers begin smoking prior to the age of 18.

The majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a critical time for tobacco companies to convince college students to pick up the habit of cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking in college is seen as a social activity by those who partake in it, and more than half of the students that are users do not consider themselves smokers. This may be because most college students plan to quit smoking by the time that they graduate.

Smoking in Syria

Smoking in Syria is steadily increasing in popularity amongst the Syrian population, mainly in the forms of cigarettes or narghiles. In Syria, the General Organization of Tobacco manages the growth and exportation of tobacco products. Syrians collectively spend about $600 million per year on tobacco consumption. As of 2010, 20% of women and 60% of men smoke and 98% of the overall population is affected by passive smoking. Narghiles and cigarettes are the two main forms of tobacco consumption. Despite the assumption that smoking, specifically the narghile, is embedded in Syrian culture, this phenomenon has only recently become widespread. Health officials are currently working on smoking cessation programs and policies, to remove this idea that smoking in Syria is an essential part of the culture, to educate regarding health effects, and to prevent citizens from smoking in public places.

Smoking in Egypt

The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that approximately twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of tobacco consumption in Egypt, with an estimated twenty billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country. After cigarettes, shisha water-pipes are the most common form of tobacco consumption. Many Egyptians are not fully aware of the health risks of using a water-pipe and many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes.

Smoking in the United States military

Smoking in the United States military has been observed in previous wars, but smoking's close association with the United States military started in World War I when tobacco companies began to target military personnel through the distribution of cigarettes to servicemen and the eventual inclusion of cigarettes into rations. Although the military has attempted to implement tobacco control initiatives, the association between smoking and military personnel has persisted to the present day as smoking rates remain high, despite declines in civilian rates. Such high rates have led to questions about the effect of smoking from the apparent health risks to troop readiness and training costs.

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Lebanon is a small middle-income country on the Eastern Mediterranean shore with a population of around 4 million Lebanese citizens, 1.2 million Syrian refugees, and half a million Palestinian refugees. It is at the third stage of its demographic transition characterized by a decline in both fertility and mortality rates. Moreover, Lebanon, like many countries in the Middle East is experiencing an epidemiological transition with an increasingly ageing population suffering from chronic and non-communicable diseases. Mortality related to non-communicable diseases is 404.4 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with an estimate of 45% due to cardiovascular diseases, making them the leading cause of death in Lebanon. Lebanon has health indices that are close to those of more developed countries, with a reported life expectancy at birth of 80.1 years and an under-five mortality rate of 9.5 per 1,000 live births in 2016. Since the end of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War in 1990, Lebanon’s health indicators have significantly improved.

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Smoking in Latvia is currently regulated through the implementation of multiple policies and laws against the use and consumption of tobacco products. Many of these regulations resulted from the Fifty-Sixth World Health Assembly in 2003, after which Latvia adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Latvia has higher prevalences of smoking tobacco in children and adults than many other European countries, where in 2014, it was reported that 37.6% of adults currently smoked tobacco. These high prevalences also occur in children, where the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2011 found that 40.5% of children in grades 7 through 9 reported current tobacco use, while 31.5% were smoking cigarettes. The percentage of children smoking tobacco decreased between the years of 2011 and 2014, where another GYTS survey indicated that 24.7% of youth from grades 7 through 9 regularly smoked tobacco.


  1. CDC. "GYTS" (PDF).